EXAM #1

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PERFUSION

the circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells current needs.

PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS OF STRESS INCLUDE:

perspiration, increased blood glucose levels, and dilated pupils

CARDIAC MONITORING, PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS AND OTHER ADVANCED TREATMENT SKILLS ARE FUNCTIONS OF THE

paramedic

YOU ARRIVE AT THE SCENE OF AN APPARENT DEATH. WHEN EVALUATING THE PATIENT WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A DEFINITIVE SIGN OF DEATH?

dependent lividity

WITH THE FLOWMETER SET AT 6 L/MIN. THE NASAL CANNULA WILL DELIVER UP TO HOW MUCH OXYGEN

44%

WHICH CONDITION OFTEN REQUIRES TRANSPORT TO A HOSPITAL WITH SPECIALIZED CAPABILITIES THAT MAY NOT BE AVAILABLE AT THE CLOSEST HOSPITAL

stroke and heart attack

PARADXYSMAL NOCTURNAL DYSPNEA, RALES, AND DEPENDENT EDEMA ARE CLINICAL INDICATORS OF

congestive heart failure

CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT CAN OCCUR AT AN ONGOING SCENE EXCEPT WHEN:

patients are actively being assessed or treated

A 37 YEAR OLD MALE HAS AN APPARENT FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. HE IS CONSCIOUS AND ALERT AND IS COUGHING FORCEFULLY. HIS SKIN IS PINK WARM AND MOIST. THE MOST APPROPRIATE TREATMENT FOR THIS PATIENT INCLUDES

performing a series of abdominal thrusts

IN CONTRAST TO INHALATION, EXHALATION

is a passive process caused by increased intrathoracic pressure

THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IS COMPRISED OF THE:

brain and spinal cord

WHICH SYSTEM IS RESPONSIBLE FOR RELEASING HORMONES THAT REGULATE BODY ACTIVITIES?

endocrine

WHAT IS A LATE SIGN OF HYPOXIA

cyanosis

THE LEAF-SHAPED STURCTURE LOCATED SUPERIOR TO THE LARYNX IS CALLED THE

epiglottis

WHEN GIVEN TO PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC-RELATED CHEST PAIN, NITROGLYCERIN

increases myocardial contraction force

A PATIENTS SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS MOST LIKELY INTACT IF HE OR SHE CORRECTLY ANSWERS QUESTIONS REGARDING

date and event

WHEN USING A BODY DRAG TO PULL A PATIENT WHO IS ON THE GROUND YOU SHOULD:

kneel to minimize the distance that you will have to lean over

REGARDLESS OF WHERE PORTABLE AND MOUNTED OXYGEN CYLINDERS ARE STORED IN THE AMBULANCE THEY MUST

be capable of delivering oxygen at 1 to 15 L/min.

IT IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT TO ASSESS PULSE, SENSATION, AND MOVEMENT IN ALL EXTREMITIES AS WELL AS PUPILLARY REACTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH WHAT SUSPECTED PROBLEM

neurologic problem

DYSPNEA

shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

KIDNEY, PANCREAS, STOMACH ARE ALL PART OF WHICH SYSTEM?

digestive system

MOVEMENT OR MOTION AWAY FROM THE BODY'S MIDLINE IS CALLED

abduction

MOVEMENT OR MOTION INTO THE BODY'S MIDLINE IS CALLED

adduction

A PATIENT WITH PROFUSE SWEATING IS REFERRED TO AS BEING

diaphoretic

THE GOLDEN PERIOD BEGINS WHEN AN INJURY OCCURS AND ENDS WHEN:

the patient receives definitive care

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A UNIQUE FUNCTION OF THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL DISPATCHER

providing callers with life-saving instructions

THE INFERIOR CARTILAGINOUS TIP OF THE STERNUM IS CALLED WHAT?

xiphoid process

COMMON SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE HYPERVENTILATION SYNDROME INCLUDE WHAT?

anxiety, dizziness and sever bradypnea

URTICARIA IS THE MEDICAL TERM FOR WHAT?

hives

ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME IS A TERM USED TO DESCRIBE WHAT?

a group of symptoms that are caused by myocardial ischemia.

KETONE PRODUCTION IS THE RESULT OF

fat metabolization when glucose is unavailable

ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ADMINISTRATION IS CONTRAINDICATED IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE INGESTED WHAT?

acids or alkalis

INSULIN FUNCTIONS IN THE BODY BY DOING WHAT?

enabling glucose to enter the cells

PSYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS OF STRESS INCLUDE

perspiration, increased blood glucose levels, and dilated pupils

SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF A STROKE DEPENDS ON WHETHER WHAT?

thrombolytic therapy is given within THREE hours after symptoms began.

THE MOST BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THE BODY SUCH AS BREATHING BLOOD PRESSURE AND SWALLOWING ARE CONTROLLED BY THE WHAT?

brain stem

THE PARIETAL PERITONEUM LINES THE

walls of the abdominal cavity

ESOPHAGEAL VARICES MOST COMMONLY OCCUR IN PATINTS WHO

drink lots of alcohol

THE SPINAL CORD EXITS THE CRANIUM THROUGH THE

vertebral foramen

PATIENTS WITH ACUTE ABDOMINAL PAIN SHOULD NOT BE GIVEN ANYTHING TO EAT OR DRINK BECAUSE

substances in the stomach increase the risk of aspiration

ORGANIC BRAIN SYNDROME IS MOST ACCURATELY DEFINED AS WHAT?

a dysfunction of the brain caused by abnormal physical or physiological function

THE TERM BEHAVIORAL CRISIS IS MOST ACCURATELY DEFINED AS WHAT?

any reaction that interferes with activities of daily living or is deemed unacceptable by others

THE MENTAL STATUS OF A PATIENT WHO HAS EXPERIENCED A TYPICAL SEIZURE IS:

likely to improve over a period of 5 to 30 minutes

SUPINE HYPOTENSIVE SYNDROME OCCURS WHEN

the gravid uterus compresses the inferior vena cava

A HISTORY OF PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE OR TUBAL LIGATIONS INCREASES A WOMAN'S RISK FOR WHAT?

an ectopic pregnancy

WHAT IS SEPTIC SHOCK?

bacterial damage to the vessel wall, leaking blood vessels and vasodilation.

WHAT IS VITREOUS HUMOR?

it is a clear jellylike fluid near the back of the eye that cannot be replaced if it is lost.

VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA CAUSES HYPOTENSION BECAUSE

the left ventricle does not adequately fill with blood

THE SYSTEMIC VEINS FUNCTION BY

returning deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

DISTRIBUTIVE SHOCK OCCURS WHEN

widespread dilation of the blood vessels causes blood to pool in the vascular beds

DEOXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE BODY RETURNS TO THE WHAT?

right atrium

THE NORMAL GLUCOSE LEVEL AS MEASURED BY A GLUCOMETER IS BETWEEN

80 and 120 mg/dL.

BURNS ARE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO

depth and extent

THE TWO MOST COMMON SIGNS OF ANAPHYLAXIS ARE WHAT?

wheezing and widespread urticaria

ACUTE STRESS REACTIONS

reaction to stress that occurs during a stressful situation

BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS

pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

a disease that can be spread from on person or species to another

HEPATITIS

inflammation of the liver, usually caused by a viral infection that causes fever loss of appetite jaundice fatigue and altered liver function

PATHOGEN

a microorganism that is capable of causing disease in a susceptible host.

VECTOR-BORNE TRANSMISSION

the use of an animal to spread an organism from one person or place to another.

ASSAULT

unlawfully placing a patient in fear of bodily harm

BATTERY

touching a patient or providing emergencey care without consent.

APPENDIX

a small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen

ARTERIOLES

the smallest branches of arteries leading to the vast network of capillaries

ATRIUM

one of the two upper chambers of the heart

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

the part of the nervous system that regulates functions such as digestion and sweating that are not controlled voluntarily.

BALL AND SOCKET JOINT

a joint that allows internal and external rotation as well as bending

BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS

portions of the nervous system that when wtimulated can cause an increased heart rate, and bronchial dilation

BILE DUCTS

the ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine

CAPILLARY VESSELS

the tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit transfer of oxygen carbon dioxide nutrients and waste between body tissues and the blood.

CECUM

the first part of the large intestine into which the ileum opens

CEREBELLUM

one of the three major subdivisions of the brain sometimes called the "little brain"- coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements.

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes the meninges

CEREBRUM

the largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality

CRICOID CARTILAGE

a firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx

DIFFUSION

movement of a gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

DISTAL

farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity

DORSALIS PEDIS ARTERY

the artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

the complex message and control system that intergrates many body functions, including the release of hormones

EPINEPHRINE

a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that has a vital role in the function of the sympathetic nervous system

ESOPHAGUS

a collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach, contractions of the muscle in the wall of the esophagus propel food and liquids through it to the stomach

FALLOPIAN TUBES

long slender tubes that extend from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side and through which the ovum passes from the ovary to the uterus

FEMORAL ARTERY

the principal artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. it supplies blood to the lower abdominal wall, external genitalia and the legs. can be palpated in the groin area

FEMUR

the thighbone- longest and strongest in the body.

GALLBLADDER

a sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct

KIDNEYS

two retroperitoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body's salt and water content

LIGAMENT

a band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones it supports and strengthens a joint.

LIVER

a large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm, it produces bile stores glucose for immediate use by the body and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses

MANUBRIUM

the upper quarter of the sternum

NOREPINEPHRINE

a neurotransmitter and drug sometimes used in the treatment of shock, produces vasoconstriction through its alpha-stimulator properties

OCCIPUT

the most posterior portion of the cranium

PANCREAS

a flat solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach- it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin

PLASMA

a sticky yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion

PLATELETS

tiny disk-shap elements that are much smaller than cells they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot.

PONS

an organ that lies below the midbrain and above the medulla and contains numerous important nerve fibers including those for sleep respiration and the medullary respiratory center.

PROSTATE GLAND

a small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder- it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid.

PULMONARY ARTERY

the major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs carrying oxygen-poor blood

RETROPERITONEAL

behind the abdominal cavity

ADOLESCENTS

persons 12 - 18 yrs. of age.

CONVENTIONAL REASONING

a type of reasoning in which a child looks for approval from peers and society

FONTANELLES

areas where the infant's skull has not fused together, usually disappear at approximately 18 months of age.

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