Speaking two languages.
Creole or creolized language
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
A combination of German (Deutsch) and English.
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Dialect spoken by some African Americans.
An artificial language invented in 1887, based on the root forms of some words common to the major European languages.
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language.
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
A language that is written as well as spoken.
Speaking only one language.
Speaking several languages.
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other.
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
Language ancestral to several daughter languages.
A family of languages consisting of most of the languages of Europe as well as those of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and other parts of Asia - People from around the the Black Sea and the Caspian sea; Between 2500 and 2000 BC, they migrated all over Eurasia; known as Hittites or Aryans, became ancestors of Romans and Greeks
Language branch that covers: Southern Europe (Turkey), Northern Europe, Northern Russia, Central Asia, and Western Asia.
A language composed of the Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages. They are 2nd behind Indo-European in number of native speakers.
The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking.
A set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related.
Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin.
Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from Scandinavia to North Africa and from North America through parts of Asia to Australia.
The tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants "backward" toward the original language.
Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language.
The language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages (including Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian), the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
The opposite of language convergence; a process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages.
The collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages; the opposite of language divergence
hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew where in he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to 3 lang. families:Europe's indo-European lang. North African and Arabian languages and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
The theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges.
Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and onto the Balkans.
Countries where only one language is spoken.
Countries in which more than one language is in use.
The language used most commonly around the world; defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language, or prevalence of use in commerce and trade
This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people. Thousands of languages have become extinct over the eons since language first developed, but the process of language extinction has accelerated greatly during the past 300 years.
A person having a speaking, reading, or writing knowledge of several languages.