All 36 AP World Chapters

Created by JuliusTembe 

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Probably shouldn't attempt this unless you have went through all the other 36 chapters

Kamehameha

Hawaiian prince; with British backing he created a unified kingdom by 1810; promoted the entry of Western ideas in commerce and social relations.

Robert Clive

Architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of British raj in northern India (18th century)

Lord Charles Cornwallis

Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790's; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption. YES also the same one that surrendered at the battle of Yorktown.

Cetshwayo

Zulu chief in 1879 who refused to dismiss his army and accept British rule, the British invaded the Zulu nation and lost control of their kingdom in the Battle of Ulundi in 1887

Battle of Isandhlwana

First major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology, the numerically superior Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the poorly led and badly deployed British, killing over 1,300 troops, including all those out on the forward firing line. The Zulu army suffered around a thousand killed.The battle was a crushing victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand.

Anglo-Zulu War

War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. From complex beginnings, the war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of colonialism in the region. The war ended the Zulu nation's independence.(1879)

Battle of Ulundi

Battle between Britain and Zulu in 1879. Britain wanted to make claim to South Africa for gold, diamonds, and power. As a result Britain won and took control of South Africa.

Berlin Conference

Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.

Madrasas

a school or college attached to a mosque where young men study theology

Mataram

Kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670's allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java

Sepoys

Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India.

British Raj

The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India company and then by a British Government

Battle of Plassey

Took place on June 23, 1757; how Great Britain really gained control in India. Despite their low number of soldiers, the British were able to win the battle against Siraj, the leader of Bengal, and his army. Soldiers fighting for Great Britain(Robert Clive leading) had a few specific qualities that made them successful on the battlefield—a strong army, gun skills, unity of their army (unlike Siraj's army), the Royal Navy, and support from other countries

Ram Mohun Roy

"Father of Modern India" modern thinking, tried to move india towards independance and away from traditional ideas like sati.

Nawab

A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor.

Presidencies

Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.

Princely States

Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire

Thomas Macaulay

British administrator who brought new school system, wrote "Minute on Education" where he stated the English was the supreme language and western civilization the supreme culture.

Captain James Cook

Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777-1779 resulting in openings of islands to the West; convinced Kamehamehah to establish a unified kingdon in the islands

Suez Canal

Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.

Nabobs

Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation.

Quinine

A medicine developed to prevent malaria. This allowed Europeans to travel to the interior of tropic regions and carve up Africa.

Tropical Dependencies

The greater portion of the European empires consisting of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific were small numbers of Europeans ruled large populations of non-Western peoples.

Ghost Dance

A religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead, Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee

Maji Maji

In the ___________ rebellion, African warriors in German East Africa sprinkled "magic water" on their bodies in hopes that it would turn the German bullets into water

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops

Settlement Colonies

Areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants.

White Dominions

Colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing independence in the 19th century

King Leopold II

-Only a constitutional monarch of Belgium
-tried to convince parlement to expand via colonies (Argentina, Philippines, china, Japan and Vietnam)
-When the government wouldn't listen He bought himself Congo (called Congo Free State).
-He was horrible to the natives and eventually Belgium had to intervene and take it over (then Belgium Congo).

White Racial Supremacy

Belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; peaked in acceptance in decades before World War I; supported by social science doctrines of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer.

The White Mans Burden

The idea that the more civilized countries need to take care of the countries that "need" it.Rudyard Kipling: poem addressing the unpopularity of foreign rule and that it was a duty to bring order and serve people

Belgian Congo

In 1879 King Leopold II hired H.M. Stanley to make treaties with African chiefs, giving control of the Congo to Leopold. It became his personal playground and was recognized as such in 1884 by the Berlin conference. Was quested for its rubber and ivory. Soldiers of the Belgian army forced the natives to do work and treated them savagely, often cutting off their hands to prove they used ammunition on humans when they were really using the ammunition on wildlife. Twain and author Conan Doyle spoke out. The Belgian Parliament was horrified and took the colony away from the king in 1908 and it became a Belgian colony.

Herbert Spencer

British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

Cape Town

City at the southern tip of Africa; became the first permanent European settlement in Africa in 1652; built by Dutch immigrants to supply ships sailing to or from the East Indies.

Great Trek

Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.

Natal

British colony in south Africa; developed after boer trek north from cape colony; major commercial outpost of Durban.

Boer Republic

Boer free states established in southern Africa by Afrikans of Dutch descent from the British colonial government in Cape Colony (1850)

Orange Free State

Now called Bloemfontein, is the judicial capital of South Africa.

Transvaal

Region of Southern Africa originally founded by Afrikaners; became a source of interest for the British following the discovery of gold and diamonds => Boer War

Cecil Rhodes

Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe. Founded the De Beers Mining Company

Anglo-Boer War

• War between Britain and Boers
• 1899-1902
• South Africa
• Bloodiest conflict in colonial times. Boers won the first time. British won the second time. Brought about the first concentration camp ever.

Queen Liliuokalani

Leader of Hawaii who took the throne after her brother died. Was forced to give up her throne when the U.S. marines were sent.First and only reigning Hawaiian queen

Louis Pasteur

French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)

Louis XVI

King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.

Saint-Just

Younger member of Committee of Public Safety who said, " whatever is outside the French revolution is an enemy" Executed with Robespierre

Maximilien Robespierre

He was a lawyer and a member of the National Convention. Led the Mountain side of the National Convention(Montagarde). and Chairman on the Committe of Public Safety. Helped France's financial situation through the concept of planned economy (setting price limits on certain products). Was a very large part of the radicalization of France, but efforts eventually led to the fall of France and take-over by Napoleon Bonaparte. He claimed that the Revolution was over. In a sense he was right; the last reforms were made in 1791. The people strongly disliked him for his views on the disablement of speaking against the republic. He was one of the main contributors to the laws that stated the death penalty for those who went against the revolution.

Declaration of the Rights of man and the Citizen

One of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defining a set of individual rights and collective rights of all of the estates as one. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, these rights are universal: they are supposed to be valid in all times and places, pertaining to human nature itself.

Guillotine

Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.

French Revolution

The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.

Burlingame Treaty

This treaty with China was ratified in 1868. It encouraged Chinese immigration to the United States at a time when cheap labor was in demand for U.S. railroad construction. It doubled the annual influx of Chinese immigrants between 1868 and 1882. The treaty was reversed in 1882 by the Chinese Exclusion Act.

Age of Revolution

Period of politcal upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848

Bastille

The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles

Social Contract

The notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others

Rousseau

French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland, believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property

Nationalism

Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe; often allied with other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.

James Watt

Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him.

Population Revolution

Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.

Proto-Industrialization

Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full- or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution.

Stamp Act

A law passed by the British Parliament in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and even playing cards.The colonists heartily objected to this direct tax and in protest petitioned the king, formed the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted English imports. In 1766 Parliament repealed this Act, a major victory for colonists.

Reign of Terror

Period in the French Revolution. It was established by the government on Sept. 5, 1793, to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution (including nobles, priests, and hoarders). Controlled by the radical Committee of Public Safety and Maximilien Robespierre, the Terror eliminated enemies on the left (Jacques Hébert and his followers) and the right (Georges Danton and the Indulgents).

Committee of Public Safety

The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.

Marie Antoinette

Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)

Estates General

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

Congress of Vienna

The Quadruple Alliance met, to discuss the Balance of Power. Great Britian got to have their conquered colonies, Austria got Venetia and Lombardy and Polis lands, and Prussia and Russia were compensated.

Prince Metternich

Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna.

Quadruple Alliance

G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.

Elba

This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days

St. Helena

Where Napoleon was exiled until the end of his life. 1815,1821 Revolution comes to an inglorious end.

Hundred Days

The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France

American Civil War

Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.

Conservatives

Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th Century; opposed revolutionary goals; advanced restoration of monarchy and defense of Church

Liberal

Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.

Radical

Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights than liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes

Greek Revolution

Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.

French Revolution of 1830

Second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement that created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers. Probably the first populist President.

Reform Bill of 1832

Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.

Charist Movement

Attempt to by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during 1840s; demands for reform beyond the reform bill of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed

French Revolution of 1848

Overthrew the monarchy established in 1830; briefly established a democratic republic; failure of the republic led to the reestablishment of the French Empire under Napoleon III in 1850.

Luddism

Named after mythical leader, Ned Ludd, machine-breakers tyrannized parts of Great Britain in an attempt to frighten masters. Workers damaged and destroyed property for more control over the work process, but were met with repression.

Luddites

Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.

Otto Von Bismarck

Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire

Trasformismo

Political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo.

Social Question

Issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.

Socialism

Political movement with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.

Karl Marx

German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.

Revisionism

Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.

Feminist Movements

Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.

Emmeline Pankhurst

British suffrage leader. Led movement to win the vote for women in Great Britain. Founded the Women Social and Political Union in 1903, which held public meetings and led protest marches to the House of Commons. Jailed several times between 1908 and 1913, and used hunger strikes to protest. World War I compelled her to stop her feminist campaigns and join the war effort.

Fabian Society

Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, Emmeline Pankhurst, Beatrice Webb, and H.G Wells who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change.

Das Kapital

Published in 1867 by Karl Marx. Volumes II and III edited by Engels and published after Marx's death. More mature thought and sophisticated/academic approach than the Manifesto. Outlined the system for producing the revolution. Concentrated on economic theory. Emphasized the labor theory of value. Saw capital as "stored-up labor from former times." Justified his theories in more academic way. Had spent years in British Museum doing his research. Justified his brand of "socialism" as being more scientific.

The Communist Manifesto

Written by Marx and Engels; said that human societies have always been in warring class; put the middle class as "haves" and the working class as "have-nots"; said that IR had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor, predicting that the workers would overthrow the owners; inspired revolutionaries to adapt Marx's beliefs to their own situations

Mass Leisure Culture

An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.

Charles Darwin

English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.-

On the Origin of the Species

Darwin wrote this book in 1859 in which he presented his theory of evolution in the principle of natural selection. The basic idea of this book was that all plants and animals had evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life. In this book, Darwin also presented the theory of natural selection and "survival of the fit." In this book, Darwin discussed plant and animal species only. He was not concerned with humans themselves.

Albert Einstein

1879-1955. German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics.

Sigmund Freud

Leading psychologist of the twentieth century. Assumed that a single, unified conscious mind processed sense experiences in a rational and logical way. Analyzed dreams and hysteria. Believed that rational thinking and traditional moral values will repress sexual desires too effectively, causing guilt and neurotic fears.

Wilhelm Wundt

German physiologist who founded psychology as formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879

Romanticism

Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.

Urbanization

An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Henry James

American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."

Triple Alliance

Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.

Triple Entente

A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.

Balkan Nationalism

Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.

Multinational Corporations

Powerful companies, mainly from the West or Pacific Rim, with production as well as distributin operations in man different countris. Multinationals surged in the decades after World War II

Pokemon

What is one of the most popular japanese shows on tv? Proof of cultural globalizations

Globalization

The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.

Y2K

A computer glitch that only showed the year by the last two digits. It was feared that when the year changed from 1999 to 2000, computers would think it was really 1900 as it only read the last two digits.

Cell Phones

Transmit and receive signals using high frequency microwaves. Signals are sent as microwaves to towers that then send the signal to a HUB. The HUB then transmits the signal to the receiving cell phone.

Tim Berners

Devloped the world wide web

Human Trafficking

A modern form of slavery in which people are sold, coerced or forced under threat of violence to work agains their will for little or no pay. Has increased with the advent of globalization.

World Trade Organizations

An international agency which encourages trade b/w member nations administers global trade agreements and resolves disputes when they arise.

INGOs

Nonprofit, open membership organization that is not connected to any government and active in at least 3 states

North American Free Trade Agreement

Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.

World Bank

A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

IMF

International Monetary Fund//a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies.

The Lexus and the Olive Tree

1999 book by Thomas L. Friedman that posits that the world is currently undergoing two struggles: the drive for prosperity and development, symbolized by the Lexus, and the desire to retain identity and traditions, symbolized by the olive tree

Fundamentalism

Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).

CFC

(Abbr.) Chemical compounds originally developed for use in refrigeration systems, now used widely in industry. When released into the air, they break down and release chlorine, which causes damage to the Earth's ozone layer and is responsible for creating the ozone hole.Cholorofluorocarbons

Global Warming

An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)

Dubai

The rapidly expanding commercial and business capital of the middle east; in the united arab emirates

G-20

Group of 20 leading economies; new great powers, International forum for constructive discussion between industrial and emerging market economies

Population Bomb

Required only three things: a rapid rate of change, a limit of some sort, and delays in perceiving the limit.Predicted that in the 1970s & 1980s hundreds of millions would starve to death; later proven false. Paul Ehrlich

Paul Ehrlich

An ecologist who warned that the greatest threat to the planet is overpopulation and that resources on earth would quickly become depleted as population grew, FAILED.

Vladimir Putin

Yeltsin's PM in 1999, then RUssia's president from 2000 to 2008, Putin gained popularity by prosecuting Yeltsin's war on Chechnya, restoring economic and social stability and the power of the Russian state, he was also elected Prime Minister in 2008.

Amnesty International

An influential non-governmental organization that operates globally to monitor and try to rectify glaring abuses of political (not economic or social) human rights.

Reagan Doctrine

US would support freedom fighters trying to overthrow Communist regimes; applied in Nicaragua, Angola, Cambodia and Afghanistan, Oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. Somewhat triggered by Afghanistan - aiding mujahideen to hurt Soviets

SALT II

Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.

Evil Empire Speech

In 1983, President Reagan made the __ __ __, in which he claimed that the USSR was "the evil of the world." Also that there would be a inevitable failure and collapse of global communism

Mikhail Gorbachev

Became the leader of the USSR in 1985. He proposed major reforms and adopted policies of greater openness (glasnost and perestroika) and allowed Soviet-bloc states greater independence. In 1991, there was an unsuccessful attempted overthrow of his government. The USSR dissolved in 1991 with his resignation.

Iranian Revolution of 1979

Opposition to the Shah, Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, grew from the brutality, inefficiency, malfeasance, and corruption of his regime. The shah had exiled his main opponent, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, and massive street demonstrations and crippling strikes against the existing government forces the shah to leave the country in 1979.

Glasnot

Policy of "openness" initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980's that provided increased opportunities for freedom

Perestroika

Gorbachev's policy of "restructuring" which included reducing the direct involvement of the Commuist Party leadership in the day to day governing of the nation. It ws a decentralization of economic planning and controls.

Marshall Tito

Yugoslavian Dictator who broke with stalin and developed his own form of communism (Titoism), tried to bring peace with the Serbs, after he died Yugoslavia broke up. Only independant communist state.

Boris Yeltsin

Russian leader who stood up to a coup attempt in 1991 that would have displaced Gorbachev: First President of the Russian Republic following dissolution of Soviet Union.

Chechnya

An autonomous republic in southwestern Russia in the northern Caucasus Mountains bordering on Georgia, ethnic republic that declared its independence in September 1991, against which Yeltsin launched a disastrous full-scale military attack in 1994 which led to the death of thousands of civilians.

Ukraine

Formerly the breadbasket of the Soviet Union, with its abundant natural resources and vast expanses of fertile soil, this country is still overly dependent on Russia which has inhibited free-market reforms. Site of Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster

August Coup

Name given to the 1991 crisis, in which Gorbachev was kidnapped by his political opponents as part of an abortive attempt to seize power. Accelerated the processes of national decay.

Orange Revolution

This was a series of events using civil disobedience, general strikes, and protests in Ukraine in 2004 and 2005., during and after what revolution did Ukraine experience fair elections and a shifted focus toward western Europe and the EU

Chernobyl

The nuclear power plant in the Ukraine that suffered two large explosions which released massive amounts of radioactive materials. It is the worst nuclear accident in history and thousands were and continue to be impacted by the disaster.

Kosovo

Region of Yugoslavia that had autonomy until Milosovic attempted to crush the Albanian group with ethnic cleansing; 1999 NATO used military strikes against Yugoslavia until the crisis came to an end in 1999

PLO

Palestinian Liberation Organization; formed in 1964 with the purpose of creating a homeland for Palestinians in Israel

Hamas

A militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon.

Gulf War

A War (1990-1991) that took place between Iraq and the U.S./Kuwait started by Iraq invading Kuwait; First non-containment based war since WWII; Often referred to as Operation Desert Storm; Primarily an aerial war (huge amounts of missiles and bombs) in the first stages, followed by an infantry march that pushed Iraqi forces back into Iraq

Rwandan Genocide

The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda in 1994. The conflict between the dominant Tutsis and the majority Hutus had gone on for centuries, but the suddenness and savagery of the massacres caught the United Nations off-guard. U.N. peacekeepers did not enter the country until after much of the damage had been done.