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BEGINNIGS OF CIVILIZATION 4 MILLION B.C. TO 200 B.C.

artifacts

human-made objects, such as tools and jewelry

culture

a people's unique way of life

hominids

humans and other creatures that walked upright, such as australopithecines

Paleolithic Age

(Old Stone Age) the earlier and longer part of the Stone Age which lasted from about 2.5 million to 8000 B.C. The oldest chopping tools date back to this era.

Neolithic Age

(New Stone Age) began about 8000 B.C. and ended as early as 3000 B.C. in some areas. People who lived during this second phase of the Stone Age learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals.

technology

the ways in which people apply knowledge, tools and invention to meet their needs

Homo sapiens

means "wise men," they are the species name for modern humans. They physically resemble Homo erectus but had much larger brains.

australopithecines

a species belonging to the hominids that existed from 4 million to 1 million B.C. They were found in southern and eastern Africa and were the first humanlike creature to walk upright.

Homo habilis

means "man of skill," a species belonging to the hominids that existed from 2.5. million 1.5 million B.C. They were found in East Africa and were the first to make stone tools.

Homo erectus

means "upright man," a species belonging to the hominids that were a more intelligent and adaptable species than Homo habilis. They were the first hominids to migrate, use fire, and speak language.

Neanderthal

a species belonging to the hominids that were powerfully built. Evidence suggests that these species tried to explain and control their world by developing religious beliefs and performing rituals. They were also resourceful and built caves or temporary shelters for the harsh Ice Age winters.

Cro-Magnon

a species belonging to the hominids that were identical to modern humans. They migrated from North Africa to Europe and Asia and planned their hunts by studying animal habits and stalking their prey.

nomad

highly mobile people who moved from place to place foraging for new sources of food

hunter-gatherers

nomadic groups whose food supply depended on hunting animals and collecting plant foods

Neolithic Revolution

(agricultural revolution) far-reaching changes in human life resulting from the beginnings of farming

slash-and-burn farming

a practice where groups would cut trees or grasses and burned them to clear a field. The ashes that remained, fertilized the soil. Farmers planted crops for a year or two, before moving to another area of land. A few years later, trees and grasses grew back, and other farmers repeated the process of slashing and burning.

domestication

taming of animals

A civilization's five characteristics...

advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, improved technology

specialization

development of skills in a specific kind of work

artisan

skilled workers who make goods by hand

institution

long-lasting pattern of organization in a community

scribe

professional record keepers

cuneiform

Sumerian scribes invented this system of writing meaning "wedge-shaped"

Bronze Age

period which refers to the time when people began using bronze, rather than copper and stone, to fashion tools and weapons. This period started in Sumer around 3000 B.C., but the date varied in other parts of Asia and in Europe

barter

a way of trading goods and services without money

ziggurat

usually the tallest and most important building (temple) its a pyramid-shaped monument which means "mountain of god"

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