CNA Nutrition test

59 terms by korenbetz 

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Peristalsis

Wave like movements through the digestive tract that move food through.

Defecation

Passing of stool

Roughage/Fiber

Indigestible fiber of fruits veggies, and cereal that acts as a stimulus to aid in intestinal peristalsis.

Nutrient

Food that supplies the body with its necessary elements

Residue

What remains after something is removed

Digestion

Process by which food is broken down mechanically and chemically and changed to a form than can be absorbed by the body.

Nutrition

The process of taking in food and producing energy from it.

5 catagories of nutrients

Proteins
Carbs
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals

6 basic food catagories

Bread, cereal rice pasta
vegetables
fruits
milk, yogurt and cheese
meat poultry, fish beans, eggs nuts
fats

How do the elderly resident's nutritional needs differ from those of a middle aged adults

Nutritional needs are the same but they need less calories

List three items permitted on a clear liquid diet

Coffee
tea
broth
jello
juices
popsicles
water
ice chips

List three items permitted on a full liquid diet

milk
pudding
creamed soups
ice cream

A sodium restricted diet is low in

salt

What are two ways a nutritionally complete liquid diet can be provided?

Oral
NG or G Tube

Three signs of hyperglycemia

frequent thirst
frequent urination
weight loss
constant hunger
fruity breath
headaches

Three signs of hypoglycemia

Headaches
dizziness
hunger
weakness, shakiness
sweating
disorientation

11 organs of the digestive system

Mouth
Salivary glands
esophogas
liver
gallbladder
stomach
pancreas
large intestines
small intestines
appendix
rectum/anus

What are 2 functions of the digestive system

ingests and prepares food for use by body
excretes wastes

Name 2 age related changes affecting the digestive system

Need for calories decreases, nutrient needs remain the same
Constipation

7 glands of the endocrine system

pituitary
thyroid
parathyroid
adrenal
pancreas
ovaries
testes

What are the two functions of the endocrine system?

secretes hormones to regulate body processes of growth and development
regulates body functions

Name 2 age related changes affecting the endocrine system

less hormone production
muscle weakness

Name two non nutrients Identify the importance of each non nutrient

Water- person can only live a few days without water
Fiber-provides bulk to the stool

diabetes

a chronic disease in which the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin or the body does not effectively use the insulin secreted

an example of a cultural religious dietary restriction

Jewish Orthodox who cannot have meat and dairy served at the same meal.

4 considerations in preparing the resident for a meal

offer tolieting
wash resident's hands
oral care before breakfast
dentures, glasses, hearing aids in place

List two considerations in preparing and serving food trays

check name, make sure they get correct tray
check tray to make sure diet is correct for that resident

four things a nurse assistant can do to assist the resident to eat

place tray in front of resident with main dish close
arrange everything so resident can reach it
open milk cartons, juices, cereal boxes etc
cut up food spread butter etc

identify four key points in feeding the resident

make sure resident is in an upright position, put clothing protection on
alternate solids and fluids
allow time for swallowing and chewing
give small manageable bites 1/2 to 3/4 tsp (?tbsp)

what are four things you should do after a resident has finished a meal

remove tray-report amount eaten
remove clothing protector
wash hands face
keep resident in an upright position for at least 30 minutes to prevent reflux or aspiration

Describe how you could tell the resident who is visually impaired where his or her food is located?

identify everything on the tray by comparing the position of the food to the hour hand of a clock.

List three assistive devices that may help the resident to be more independent at meal times

Plate guard
Nosey cup (sippy cup)
Built up (handles) utensils

What are liquids and solids alernated during the meal

to provide moisture for chewing and swallowing

Describe how thickened liquids are used

1 packet (1 tbsp) =nectar consistency
2 packets (2 tbsp) =honey consistency
3 packets (3 tbsp)=pudding consistency

When feeding a resident the NA prevents choking by

ensuring the resident's dentures are in his or her mouth

If a choking resident can speak cough or breath do not intervene because starting the procedure may cause the resident to

breath in harder and force the object further down the respiratory tract

When a resident is receiving an IV feeding the NA should observe and report the resident's complaint of

pain at the site

define disaphoresis

excessive sweating

define the term graduate

rigid container

3 routes to administer fluids

oral
IV
GT/NG tube

4 fluids that must be measured for oral intake

water, coffee, tea, jello
juices sodas etc
ice cream, milk shake
cream sherbert

define frequent fluids

taking in more than usual number of drinks

4 methods of giving frequent fluids

offer favorite beverages
place fluids within reach of resident
offer a variety of fluids
offer fluids at frequent intervals

3 items that are measured for output

urine
vomit
diarrhea

identify three key points in distributing drinking water

make sure water is fresh and pitchers are clean
offer water at regular intervals and at meals
make sure you place eater in reach of resident

identify four key points in measuring I & O

average oral intake for an adult is 2000-3000 cc a day
keep paper and pen in room to record I & O
I & O is added up at end of each shift and totaled at 24 hours
when MD orders I & O it must be accurate no guessing

1 ml equals

1 cc

1 tsp equals

5cc

1 oz equals

30 cc

4 oz equals

120 cc

8oz of water glass

240cc

NCS

non concentrated sweets

LCS

low concentrated sweets

name of position for mealtime

Fowler's position

Enteral nutrition

giving nutrients through the digestive tract using a tube.

Aspiration

when the tube feeding enters the lungs during the feeding.

Parenteral nutrition

provides the daily nutritional requirements through an IV

3 signs of dehydration

thirst
constipation
decreased urination
low blood pressure
weak rapid pulse
confusion
dry lips and mucous membranes
rapid weight loss

3 things the body needs to keep it going

water
fiber
nutrients

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