All of the following are features of nutrition and metabolism in infancy except
the protein content in breast milk can be high enough to occasionally induce protein overload.
What is the most realistic advice for reducing lead exposure from the tap water used to prepare infant formula?
Because the first water drawn from the tap each day is highest in lead, let the water run a few minutes before using it
Which of the following is the most likely reason that teachers promote the consumption of midmorning snacks for children?
It provides carbohydrate for maintenance of blood glucose and brain function
Which of the following two conditions are associated with television's influence?
Obesity and high blood lipids
Which of the following is not a characteristic of cigarette smokers and nutrition?
They have higher intakes of carotene-rich foods
All of the following are characteristics in the development of atherosclerosis except
once plaque is formed, it can be contained but cannot regress.
Studies of adults show that longevity is related, in part, to all of the following except
short periods of sleep.
Mary is 75 years old and has been getting sick recently and losing weight. After assessing all symptoms, her doctor diagnoses atrophic gastritis and prescribes an antibiotic. All of the following are symptoms associated with this condition except
Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?
They vary according to individual histories
What is a congregate meal?
A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center
Which of the following foods in particular must be restricted in the diet of a person taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug?
Kimmy is a curious 4-month-old baby who is just learning how to crawl. On Monday she came across some large dust particles underneath the couch, which caused her to sneeze and develop a runny nose and a cough. Two weeks later she came across more dust from the same place. Which of the following aspe
Being obese is known to increase the probabilities of contracting all of the following diseases except
The obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot that broke away from arterial plaque is termed
Anyone who is medically advised to lower blood cholesterol should
achieve desirable body weight.
The higher risk for breast cancer in obese women after menopause is thought to result mainly from chronic exposure to
Which of the following is a characteristic of botulism illness?
It is caused by a toxic compound rather than by invasion of pathogenic bacteria
What nutrients in foods are most vulnerable to losses during food handling and preparation?
Which of the following is a feature of naturally occurring food toxicants?
Lima beans contain deadly cyanide compounds
The FDA monitors pesticides by sampling
some food shipments for some pesticides
What is the chief reason that nitrites are allowed to be added to certain meat products?
Nitrites inhibit the formation of botulinum toxin
As you sit in the waiting room of a doctor's office leafing through a magazine, you see a letter to the editor about world hunger. In it, the author takes issue with a statement made in a previous issue that stated, "...and thus, hunger worsens poverty...." The letter writer claims that this stateme
Yes, hunger makes poverty worse by robbing a person of the good health and the physical and mental energy needed to be active and productive
In an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality, which of the following would be a first course of action for a Peace Corps volunteer to correct the prevalence of diarrhea in a small village where she is working?
Implementing oral rehydration therapy for those who are dehydrated
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. agriculture practices?
They tend to support the use of pesticides and fertilizers
What is the nutritional advantage of eating range-fed buffalo?
The fat content is lower and the fat has more omega-3
Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into
The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced
absorption of dietary vitamin D.
Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D?
In the body, water that resides between cells is known as
What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?
Green leafy vegetables
What is the sodium-potassium pump?
A cell membrane protein that uses energy to pump sodium out of the cell
Which of the following is a feature of sodium and health?
High sodium intake is known to promote calcium excretion
Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood?
Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
Helps maintain gastric acidity
Which of the following is a symptom of potassium deficiency?
Among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcium-dense?
A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of
Your cousin Emily is a vegetarian. Since you have just learned in your nutrition class that nonheme iron is absorbed less efficiently than heme iron, you want to make sure Emily is getting enough iron. What should you recommend Emily do to maximize her iron absorption?
Eat her nonheme iron sources with a glass of orange juice
Common terms that describe the body's accumulation of excess iron include all of the following except
Characteristics of manganese in nutrition include all of the following except
deficiencies are seen primarily in the elderly.
Which of the following is a known side effect of prolonged ingestion of excessive amounts of zinc supplements?
Copper deficiency due to interference with copper absorption
Which of the following would most likely result from an excessive intake of iodine?
Thyroid gland enlargement
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Which of the following represents current knowledge of the role of vitamin and mineral supplements in physical performance?
Except perhaps for iron and vitamin E, supplements are not recommended because there is no difference in the RDA of physically active people compared with sedentary people
All of the following are characteristics of electrolyte metabolism in sports except
sweating leads to significant losses of calcium, sulfur, and chromium which can be replaced by including milk and whole grains in the diet
During development of the fetus, what organ(s) is/are the first to develop?
Central nervous system and brain
You work with a primary care physician to help newly pregnant women plan their diets. What vital information is needed to formulate a plan of weight gain?
Weight and height
Examine the following menu for a pregnant woman: BREAKFAST: 2 scrambled eggs, 1 crushed wheat English Muffin, 1 cup orange juice. LUNCH: 2 pieces (4 oz) fried chicken, 2 wheat rolls w/butter, 1/2 cup mashed potatoes and gravy, Iced tea. SUPPER: 3 oz pork chop, 1 ear corn on the cob, Lettuce and tom
Which of the following is not a feature of malnutrition in pregnancy?
Around the time of conception, it prevents the uterus from developing fully but spares the placenta
The complete lining of a person's digestive tract is renewed approximately every
Overcooking a food is least likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients?
Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to
assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals.
Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
Legumes are used as meat alternatives for all of the following reasons except
they can be graded as prime, choice, and select.
Which of the following is a feature of the exchange list system?
All foods are grouped according to their content of carbohydrate, protein, and fats
Which of the following is a feature of people regularly eating meals based on tofu?
They have lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels than those eating meat
For the most part, all of the following are advantages of vegetarian diets except
vitamin B12 intake is higher.
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
Protects stomach cells from gastric juices.
After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
What is one function of the gallbladder?
When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the
Therapy for constipation would include all of the following except
decreasing fiber intake.
All of the following are major causes of ulcer formation except
excessive use of antacids.
ou have just finished a light breakfast of toast and jelly. Which of the following series of events proceeds upon digestion/absorption of the meal until it is near time for lunch?
Blood glucose rises, the pancreas releases insulin, glucose is taken up by the cells through the action of insulin, blood glucose levels decline, the pancreas releases glucagon, glucagon stimulates liver cells to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood, blood glucose rises
What is the composition of sucrose?
One glucose and one fructose unit
17. Where is most of the body's glycogen found?
Allen is 20 years old and asks for help in selecting a fiber-rich diet. After he ranks the kinds of foods he likes to eat, you provide him with a list of food items consisting of
3 slices of whole-wheat bread, 2 cups of black beans, 1 ounce 100% bran cereal, and 1 cup apple juice.
What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?
Which of the following cannot be found in plants?
Your aunt Gladys has a family history of heart disease. She decides to begin eating a bowl of oatmeal every morning to help lower her blood cholesterol. After about a month of following this routine, her cholesterol declined about 5 points. Which of the following is the most likely explanation f
Oatmeal is high in soluble fibers that trap bile, causing the body to use more cholesterol for bile replacement
A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of
Which of the following is a feature of fat metabolism?
Triglycerides in the blood must first be broken down to monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol prior to uptake by the adipose cells
You and your friend John are planning a college graduation party and you want to include healthy snack alternatives. You select fruit, veggies, low-fat dips, low-fat cheeses, whole-wheat crackers, and low- fat potato chips. John says he has heard about the fat replacer olestra in the potato chips
contains a fat-like substance that the body's enzymes can't break down and therefore cannot be absorbed.
A characteristic of farm-raised fish is they are
lower in omega-3 fats.
Which of the following is not an essential amino acid in human nutrition?
Which of the following defines protein turnover?
The sum of protein synthesis and degradation
What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
A person who is starving is losing .
glycogen, protein, and fat.
Which of the following processes is regulated primarily by the buffering action of proteins?
Alberta is a 20 year old who has been a vegetarian for 3 years. She comes to you for advice after reading some material online by the Meat Promoters of America organization. One of their statements is: "vegetarians are at risk for protein deficiency because they cannot consume all of the essential amino acids necessary for healthy individuals." How should Alberta be advised?
Although many foods don't provide all the essential amino acids individually, she could consume complementary proteins throughout the day, which would provide all the essential amino acids she needs
Which of the following is a feature of whey protein?
It is a waste product of cheese production
All of the following are among the functions of the liver except .
production of red blood cells.
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
Lillie has been losing weight by following a very-low-carbohydrate diet for 2 months. Her primary care physician just diagnosed ketosis through a urine sample. Which of the following symptoms would be another way the physician might have suspected ketosis in Lillie?
Fruity odor on breath
Which of the following cannot be used to make body proteins?
Chronic excess alcohol intake leads to all of the following effects on folate except .
the small intestine recycles more folate.
What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
Which of the following hormones is most responsible for signaling satiety as well as reducing food intake during a meal?
You are planning a diet for a hospitalized patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for 6 weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient's energy expenditure?
Basal metabolic rate
In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
All of the following are an association between type 2 diabetes and body fat except .
overweight people with the disease who lose weight show no improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.
Tom was overweight when he was 13. During puberty he continued to gain weight steadily until at age 23, when he decided to lose weight. Tom successfully lost 50 pounds. Which of the following most likely happened to Tom's fat cells?
They shrank in size but did not decrease in number
Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?
Blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat
What is the best approach to weight loss?
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
All of the following are meal-planning strategies for underweight people who desire to gain weight except .
they should refrain from between-meal snacking, especially energy drinks.
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?
Excreted primarily in the urine
Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size?
People with the condition known as iron overload may be adversely affected from taking supplements of .