The initial design phase:
It is divergent and exploratory, with the goal of generating as many ideas concepts and approaches to the design as possible.
Explore the information content system:
-This includes determining the locations and communication functions of key signs in the program, as well as generating approached to sign message nomenclature and hierarchy.
The building blocks:
The graphic system gives structure, form and style to the information being communicated on signs.
4 Elements of sign's design:
-Symbols and arrows
Typography is the backbone of the sign.
Most of the information is conveyed by words instead of images.
Things to keep in mind with you sign's typography:
-avoid trendy fonts
Symbols and arrows:
-are graphic devices that communicate information pictorially.
Arrows with a tale communicate better.
Definition of sign colors:
-green: guide and orientation.
-blue: motorist services.
-brown: recreational and cultural interest.
-red: prohibitory messages
-white: regulatory messages.
-bright orange: construction messages.
-intentional distortion to be seen from a certain angle.
Information content system:
-how the sign messages are worded
-where the sign info is located
-how the messages and location relate to each other.
A key design problem in the design of a comprehensive sign program is how to create a unified family resemblance.
Abbreviations should only be used in the sign nomenclature when they are highly recognized.
-people navigate from generation to specific. Building, floor, room.
-conserve sign space
-meaning can transcend language barriers.
-they can sometimes communicate as clearly as words.
ADA, Americans with Disabilities Act:
-equal access for handicapped
-color, braille, signs a certain distance off of floor.
Local codes and interior signage:
-regulations for building environment...life safety.
-Indoor: life safety
-Outdoor: structural integrity (wind, water, such)
Kinds of sign information:
-Regulatory and prohibitory
-are located at destination to identify that environment.
Directional (way finding) signs:
-are located remotely from destinations to direct people to various destinations.
-cookie cutter, universal signs
Regulatory and prohibitory signs:
-regulate peoples behavior, prohibit activities.
-no smoking, authorized personnel only.
-inform people of environment's use.
-directories, hours of operation.
-honor people, donors, in memoriam...
-helps people interpret meaning of an environment or places within it.
-paints and clear coatings (most common)
-porcelain or enamel
-patinas and oxide coatings
-vinyl or other plastic films
finely ground electrically charged particles that are sprayed dry onto the sign materials; the particles are held in place by electrostatic charge until they are heated in a curing oven to fuse the particles together.
finely ground glass particles are applied to a metal base and heated to a high temp. to fuse the particles into a smooth glass coating. It is noticeably thicker and richer than most other coatings used in signage.
Patinas and dioxide coatings:
occur only on metals and are the result of corrosion, a chemical reacting between metals and elements such as oxygen and sulfur.
refers to the coatings that form on "red" and "yellow" metals, such as bronze, brass and copper.
color metal that has not been painted. The oxide on the surface of aluminum is thickened by an electrochemical process forming a very hard, almost glass like coating.
is an oxide layer that forms on the surface of all iron and steel, except for stainless steel.
Plastics and vinyl films:
Thin flexible sel-adhesive sheets that can be applied to a range of sign materials.
4 types of finishes:
4 basic types of mounting:
-Freestanding or ground-mounted
-Suspended or veiling hung
-Projecting or flag-mounted
-Flush or flat wall-mounted
3 things that help determine mounting heights and methods:
For interior signs, the zone for displaying eye-level sign information is roughly 3'-0" and 6'-8" above the finished floor.
ADA requires the horizontal centerline of tactile/Braille permanent room identification signs to be mounted 5'-0"
ADA requires all overhead ceiling suspended or projecting signs to have a minimum clearance of 80" or 6'-8".
There are 3 options for lighting signs:
refers to lighting that is outside of a sign but specifically dedicated to and aimed at the sign for purposes of illuminating more common in exterior environments.
light that is transmitted from within a sign. It is commonly used for signs within internal and external environments.
6 basic sign materials:
4 Typical Metals:
-Stainless steel: doesn't rust, heavy weight, very expensive.
-Aluminum: good durability, light weight, medium to high expense.
-Carbon Steel: good for construction, can paint. Requires rust inhibiting paints.
-Bronze, brass and copper, copper alloys ("red and "yellow"). Excellent appearance, heavy weight. High expense.
Plastics unique properties exploited for signage:
-Relatively low weight
2 primary sign plastics:
Benefits of glass:
Transparency: excellent appearance; good to excellent durability: heavy weight and medium to high expense.
Types of glass:
Tempered glass: is treated so that it breaks in large chunks. Cannot be cut, drilled, sandblasted. All of this must take place before the glass is tempered.
Laminated glass: can be tempered or not. Consists of two or more sheets of glass that are permanently laminated together with a clear plastic interlayer.
-range from excellent to poor appearance; low to high durability; light to medium weight; and low to high expense.
-lower quality wood can be laminated with a veneer to look higher quality.
-wood is less common today since plastic can be made to look like it.
-unique property of flexibility; consequently it is typically used for exterior signage, flags, banners.
-stone, brick and precast concrete varieties.
-stone is the most prestigious.
-marble, granite, slate, limestone, sandstone, and others; many textural and color varieties of each of these are also available.
What is EGD?
A systematic cohesive (usually unified) graphic communication system for a given site within the built environment.
EGD is a cross-diciplinary field involving:
What is a site in a built environment?
A "site" can be anything from a single building, to a building complex, to a city, a transportation system, or any other system on a regional or national scale.
What is the importance of EGD?
To create a sense of well-being in a high stress environment such as a hospital, public transportation system, or a new environment.
Well being= Safety, ease, and a sense of security.
How do you create a sense of well-being?
-Through way finding or signage: this orients people to a site and helps them navigate it.
-Through interpretation, which tells a story about the place.
-Through place making, which creates a distinct image for the site.
EGD can create a brand imagine in 3D using:
-Harmony: Seamless integration with the existing architecture.
-Imposition: Imposing an identity that is completely independent of the site's character.
*These methods can unite a site with disparate elements.