Chapter 18 Applications of Immunology
|What is a Vaccine?||A vaccine is a suspension of microbes, which have been attenuated, killed, and or fractioned, and produces an immune response upon injection into a host.|
|What is attenuated?||Weakened|
|Types of Vaccines|| Attenuated, whole-agent|
|Attenuated, whole-agent Vaccine|| *Living Agent, usually virus|
*Agent usually reproduces in host, therefore, generally provides most effective and long-lived immunity.
*Microbe is either avirulent or less virulent than the disease-causing agent
*Risk of Back mutation
|What is vaccine back-mutation?||Risk of back-mutation to virulent forms may cause disease, particularly in an immunocompromised recipient|
|Examples of Attenuated, whole-agent vaccines.|| Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)|
Oral polio (Sabin)' small pox, TB, nasal influenza vaccine.
|Inactivated whole-agent Vaccine||Microbe is killed, usually by chemical treatment with phenol or formalin.|
|Examples of Inactivated whole-agent Vaccine|| Rabies and injected influenza vaccine|
Injected polio (Salk)
|Why get vaccinated each year for seasonal flu?||In order to be protected against the strains that have mutated.|
|Examples of Toxoid Vaccines||Tetanus and diptheria|
|Subunit Vaccine|| Microbes and fragmented (acellular)|
This vaccine has the lowest risk for side effects
|Examples of subunit vaccines|| Hepatitis B|
Produced by genetically-modified yeast.
|Conjugated Vaccines||Microbial polysaccharides are coupled with proteins to enhance T-cell response|
|Example of Conjugated Vaccine||Haemophilus influenza b|