Chapter 10

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Which of the following statements regarding viruses is false?

A virus is generally considered to be alive because it is cellular and can reproduce on its own.

Which of the following people conducted the experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages?

Hershey and Chase

one type of virus that infects bacteria is called a

Phage

When a T2 bacteriophage infects an Escherichia coli cell, Which part of the phage enters the bacterial cytoplasm?

only the DNA

The way that genetic material of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium is most like the way that

a drug is injected with a hypodermic needle.

the monomers of DNA and RNA are

nucleotides.

Which of the following statements regarding DNA is False?

DNA uses the nitogenous base uracil

which of the following statements regarding RNA is false?

RNA uses the sugar dextrose.

Which of the following statements regarding the structure of DNA is false?

The sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA stand is restricted by the base-pairing rules.

How would the shape of a DNA molecule change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paired with Thymine?

The DNA Molecules would have irregular widths along its length

the shape of a DNA molecule is most like

a twisted rope ladder

Which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is always true?

the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine

DNA replication

uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation pf a new strand.

If one strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding stand would be

GCCATG

The copying mechanism if DNA is most like

carving a figure out of wood

When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains

50% of the parent DNA

Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecule of eukaryotic cells serve to

shorten the time necessary for DNA replication

Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA stand?

DNA Polymerase

Why does a DNA Strand grow only in a 5'to 3' direction?

because DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing molecule

Which of the following options best describes the flow pf information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular compound?

DNA---->RNA--->Protein

The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called

transcription

The "one gene-one polypeptide" theory states that

the function of an individual gene is a dictate the production of a specific polypeptide

Experiments have demonstrated that the "words" of the genetic code ( the units that specify amino acids) are

Three-nucleotide sequences

The Directions for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of ______ nucleotides in an RNA molecule

3

We would expect that a 15-nucleotide sequence will the production of a polypeptide that consists of

4 amino acids

A base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this?

the fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon.

Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the linking together of RNA nucleotides to form RNA?

RNA polymerase

Which of the following occurs when RNA polymerase attaches to promoter DNA?

initiation of a new RNA molecule

_____ marks the end of a gene and causes transcription to stop.

A terminator

Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells?

in the cytoplasm

Which of the following statements about eukaryotic RNA is true?

Exons are spliced together

Which of the following takes places during translation?

the conversation of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins

Which of the following is a function of tRNA?

joining to only one specific types of amino acid

Which of the following is NOT needed in order for translation to occur?

DNA template

Which of the following statements about ribosomes is false?

The Ribosomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the same in structure and function

Which of the following statements is false?

An mRNA molecule transcribed from DNA is shorter than the genetic message it carries

Which of the following statements regarding the flow of genetic information is false?

Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells

Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called

a mutation

Consider the following sentence: "The dog did not eat." Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a reading frame mutation?

the dod idn ote at.

a physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a

mutagen

A protein shell enclosing a viral genome is known as a

capsid.

Which of the following features characterizes the lytic cycle of a viral infection?

The cycle typically leads to the lysis of the host cell

Which of the following statements is false?

The lysogenic cycle typically results in the rapid lysis of all infected cells

Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a

Prophase

The envelope of a flu virus

helps the virus enter the cell

Which of the following statements about herpesviruses is false?

Herpesviruses reproduce inside the host cell's mitochondria

Which of the following option most accurately lists the sequence of events in translation?

Codon recognition--->peptide bond formation---> termination -->translocation

Which of the following statements about plant viruses is false?

to infect a plant, virus must first get the plant's epidermis

Which of the following statements regarding viral diseases is false?

Very few new human diseases have originated in other animals because the genetic differences are too great.

What will be the most likely cause of a new avian flu pandemic like the 1918-1919 flu pandemic that killed approximately 40 million people worldwide?

easy viral transmission from person to person

What kind of virus is HIV

a retrovirus

Which of the following enzymes does HIV use to synthesize DNA on an RNA template?

reverse transcriptase

HIV does the greatest damage to

White blood cells

How do viroids harm the plants that are infected with them?

by altering the plants' growth

Which of the following statements about the treatment of prevention for a prion infection is true?

There is no known treatment or cure for prion infections

In the late1920's, Frederick Griffith conducted an experiment in which he mixed the dead cells of a bacterial strain that can cause pneumonia with live cells pf a bacterial strain that cannot. When he cultured the live cells, some of the daughter colonies proved able to cause pneumonia. Which of the following processes of bacteria DNA transfer does this experiment demonstrate?

transformation

Transduction

occurs when a phase transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another

Conjugation

is the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another

Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are all ways that bacteria

increase their genetic diversity

A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you infect your computer with the virus when you open the email. This process of spreading the computer virus using emails is most which of the following processes?

Transduction

When a bacterial cell with a chromosome-borne F factor conjugates with another bacterium, how is the transmitted donor DNA incorporated into the recipients genome?

It is substituted for the equivalent portion of the recipients chromosome by the process of crossing over

in many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on

R plasmids

Conjugation between a bacterium that an F factor (F-) and a bacterium that has an F factor on its chromosome (F+) would typically produce which of the following results?

The F+ bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F-bacterium, and the F- bacterium ends up with an unaltered chromosome

A functional F factor is an R plasmid must contain all of the following elements except

a site for making the proteins needed for conjugation

Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids?

Heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculure

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