Microbes and the process of infection

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Chapter 7

abcess

Localized collection of pus

acquired immunity

disease immunity established through cellular memory following exposure to the disease antigen

active immunity

production of antibodies which combat a specific disease. acquired by contracting the disease or by vaccination

aerobes

organisms that need oxygen to survive

aerosol droplets

a droplet of moisture small enough to remain suspended in the air, it can carry microorganisms with in it

anaerobes

bacteria that grow in the absence of oxygen and are destroyed by oxygen

anaphylactic shock

a severe and rapid and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance (especially a vaccine or penicillin or shellfish or insect venom) to which the organism has become sensitized by previous exposure

antibotic

a chemical agent used specifically for the treatment of bacterial infection

antibiotic resistant

a microorganism that is able to resist destruction by antimicrobial therapy

antibodies

complex glycoproteins produced by the immune system that are formed in response to antigens, an antibody makes contact with an antigen to destroy or control it

antigens

non-self substances that trigger the immune system to launch defense

antimicrobial therapy

use of antimicrobial drugs to combat an infection

archaea

single-celled prokaryotes

autoinfection

the spread of infection from one part of the body to another part

bacilli

Rod shaped bacteria

bacteriology

Study of bacteria

bacteriophage

a virus that invades bacterial cells and can replicate from within the cell

bacterium

a unicelluar microorganism with a rigid cell wa

binomial system

Identifying organisms by their genus and species names

bioburden

a measure of the number of bacterial colonies on a surface

capsule

a surface layer on some cells that resist chemicals and the invasion of viruses , called the slime layer

carrier

an individual who harbors disease microbes and is capable of transmiting the disease to others but may not show signs of the infection

cell theory

1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells are produced from other cells.

cell wall

a rigid structure that surroundscertain types of cells

chromatin

a protein substance containing the genetic code of the cell

chromosomes

double strands of specially paired proteins that contain the genetic code of a cell

chronic infection

an infection that progresses and persists over a long period of time

cocci

round or spherical shaped bacteria that occurs in chains, pairs and clusters

colony

a group of microbes- usually refers to the normal growth pattern of bacteria

commensalism

the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one uses the other for physiological needs but causes no harm

community- acquired infection

infectious disease aquired in the community rather than in a health care facility

contaminated

a surface, substance, or tissue that is not completely free of microorganisms

cross- contamination

the sreading of infectio from one person to another or from an object to a person

culture

the process of growing a microbe in a laboratory setting so that it can be studied and tested

culture and sensitivity

a test in which a specific sample of bacteria is grown in the laboratory in the presence of various antibacteial agents to test the bacteria's sensitivity to them

cystitis

Infection of the bladder

cytoplasm

substance contained within the cell which contains a fluid called cystosol, and functional" organs" of the cell

dehiscence

Separation or bursting open of a surgical wound

diaphragm

mechanism for adjusting the amount of light entering the microscope

diffussion

uniform dispersal of particles in a solution or across a membrane

direct transmission

This type of transmission involves physical contact between the source of infection and the new host. _____ contact with body fluids, skin, or mucous membranes.

droplet nuclei

dried remnants of previously moist secretions containing microorganisms. are an important source of disease transmission

endocytosis

the process by which a cell surrounds and engulfs substances

endoplasmic reticulum

an extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the nucleus

endospore

...

endotoxins

toxic substances that made of lipids and carbohydrates associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria

entry site

in microbial transmission,the sites where microorganisms enter the body

eukaryote

a characteristic cell surrounded by a membrane and containing complex organs for metablism and reproduction

eviseration

when organs protrude through a surgical incision

exostosis

a process in which substances are removed from a cell

exotoxins

toxic (poisonous) substances secreted by bacterial cells during their growth.

facultative

can live with or without oxygen

fomite

an inanimate object or substance that is capable of transmitting infectious organisms from one individual to another.

golgi apparatus

an organelle that sorts, modifies, and packages proteins for transport within a cell or to other cells

gram stain

Differential staining procedure that allows categorization of bacteria into two groups (gram-positive and gram-negative) based on their ability to retain crystal violet when decolorized with an organic solvent such as ethanol.

host

an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite

immunity

your body's ability to resist the germs that cause a particular disease

infection

A condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage cells.

inflammation

a response of body tissues to injury or irritation

lysogenesis

the process whereby viruses replicate their genetic material and them cause the host cell to rupture , releasing the genetic material and forming new virions

lysosome

an organelle capable of releasing enzymes to kill the cell

microbiology

the study of microbes, or organisms that require a microscope for observation

mitochondrion

organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated; found in all eukaryotes; has two membranes (inner and outer)

mycotic

referring to fungi

nonpathogenic

does not cause disease

nosocomial infection

an infection acquired in a hospital or other healthcare facility; also known as hospital-acquired infection (HAI).

nucleoid

Region where the prokaryotic cell's DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane)

nucleolus

located inside the nucleus, and important in cell reproduction.

nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

obligate aerobe

an organism that needs oxygen in order to live

obligate anerobe

bacteria that are kiled by oxygen and can survive only in oxygen-free environments.

parasite

An organism that lives inside or on another organism and takes food from the organism in or on which it lives.

pathogen

disease causing microorganism

passive transport

movement of substances or liquid by diffusion or osmosis

pathogenicity

ability to cause disease

pathology

study of disease

phagocyte

a cell that ingests and destroys (digests) foreign matter or microorganisms

phagocytosis

the process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells

pilli

a rodlike attachment extendind from the cell membrane that is capable of attaching to another cell to transfer genethic material

prion

infectious proteins substance that is resistant to common sterilaztion methods

prokaryotes

cells that do not contain nuclei

resident microorganisms

normal flora

spirochetes

curved or spiral shaped bacteria

spore

one-celled reproductive cell that is usually resistant to harsh environmental conditions and may remain dormant for long periods

staining

the process of coloring microbial speicmens so that they can be seen with the optical microscope

standard precautions

precautions developed by the CDC that ensures that unversial precautions and body substance isolation practices

sterile

free from germs

suppurative

containing or producing pus

symobiosis

2 species live together in an intimate, often permanent association which may or may not be beneficial to both participants, some are obligatory

vacuoles

celluar compartments formed by the pinching off of the endomembrane

vector

any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease

virology

study of viruses

virulence

The degree to which a pathogen is capable of causing a disease.

virus

a tiny, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell

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