a pair of highly vascular organs that are triangular in shape, located in top of each kidney
the inner part of the adrenal glands is called the _____
the outter part of the adrenal glands is called the _____.
catacholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine
When the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated the medulla secretes two types of _____, which are _____ and _____.
These are neurotransmitters, release into blood stream, and circulate to target organs or tissue where they cause an effect on the adrenergic receptors
these play a key role in regulating extracellular fluid volume and electrolytes
mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens
three hormones secreted by the adrenal gland cortex
aldosterone is a ______.
cortisol is a _____
regulates cell activity, controls CHO, lipid and fat metabolism, affects growth, stimulates liver to change glucose to glycogen, anti- inflammatory - blocks effects of histamine, also controls emotional state (stress hormone)
growth, muscle, fat
Decreased _____ hormone, decreased _____ mass and increased ____ storage are all age related changes
adrenal hypofunction, adrenocortisol insufficiency
caused by destructive disease process causing deficiencies in cortisol and aldosterone
result of dysfunction of hypothalamus or pituitary (decreased ACTH)- aldosterone may or may not be affected.
Decreased levels of _____- alter clearance of potassium, water and sodium- leading to hyperkalemia; this leads to retention of hydrogen ions leading to metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia and hyponatremia- leads to retention of both
Other characteristics; progressive weakness, lethargy, abd pain, malaise, _____ of skin
acute profound Hypotension, tachycardia, dehydration, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, confusion, and NVD.
In addisons crisis, if plasma ACTH is ____ then the pituitary is a fault, if ____ then the adrenal gland are at fault
electrolytes, dextrose, hydrocortisone
Addisonian crisis is treated with IV fluids, ____and _____ to restore normal BP, stat admin of ______bolus and continuous infusion
In addisonion crisis, ____ is the most significant and dangerous assessment finding, along with ___ pulse
protien, cholesterol, potassium, salt
Pts with addisons should consume a diet high in _____, low ____ and ___, with ____ added liberally
production of excessive amounts of corticosteroids, particularly glucocorticoids, can be caused by long term glucocorticoid therapy, tumors
single cause for this is prolonged admin of high doses of cortico-steroids. Inflammation disease i.e arthritis , COPD, crohns and others.
truncal, hair, facial
Physical manifestations of cushings include ___ obesity, excessive ____, and ____fullness
delayed wound healing
In a cushings pt, ____ may mask s/s of infection
insomnia, irrational behavior, mood disturbances, irritability, anxiety
name 5 emotional changes related to cushings
Cushings may cause ____ wasting of extremities and ____ in bones
___ suppression test may be done to diagnose cushings.
In dealing with a cushings pt, the nurse should be aware of any changes in _____, such as headache, change in LOC, and papillary responses.
infection, reverse isolation
Cushings pts carry a high risk for ____, and may be placed in _______
a tumor, usually benign on adrenal medulla causing excessive secretion of catecholamines
characterized by episodes exaggerated flight or fight responses htn, hyper metabolism, and hyperglycemia
Cardinal symptom of pheochromocytoma is extremely high _____.
pheochromocytoma attacks can be triggered by ____
surgical removal of tumor or gland
treatment of choice for pheochromocytoma