The kidneys are __________ structures.
The ureters enter the ________ aspect of the bladder.
The kidneys lie on the __________ surface of each psoas major muscle.
The kidneys lie at a ________ angle in ralation to the coronal plane.
The three constricted points along the length of the ureters where a kidney stone is most likely to lodge are:
Ureteropelvic Junction (UPJ)
Near brim of pelvis
Uretrovesical junction (UVJ)
An abnormal drop of more than _____ inches or _______ cm, in the position of the kidneys when the patient is erect indication a condition termed nephroptosis.
The buildup of nitrogenous waste in the blood creates a condition called
How much urine is normally produced by the kidneys in 24 hours
The renal veins connect directly to the
Inferior vena cava
The 8 to 18 conical masses found within the renal medulla are called the
The major calyces of the kidney unite to form the
The microscopic unit of the kidney (of which there are more than 1 million in each kidney) is called the
T or F The loop of Henle and collecting tubules are located primarily in the medulla of the kidney
T or F About 50% of the glomerular filtrate processed by the nephron is reabsorbed into the kidney's venous system.
FALSE (is 99% filtrated)
The inner, posterior triangular aspect of the bladder that is attached to the floor of the pelvis is called the
Under what circumstances should a pregnant patient have an IVU performed?
When the benefit of the procedure outweighs the risks of the radiation exposure
List the two classes of iodinated contrast media used for urinary studies
Dissociates into two separate ions once injected
Uses as salt as its cation
Parent compound is a carboxyl group
Less expensive of the two types
Diatrizoate is a common anion
Creates a hypertonic condition in blood plasma
Possesses low osmolality
Produces a less severe contrast media reaction
Does not contain a cation
Creates a near isotonic solution
The normal range of creatinine in an adult is
0.6 to 1.5 mg/dl
How long must a patient be witheld from taking METFORMIN following an iodinated contrast media procedure?
Which one of the following conditions is considered high risk for an iodinated contrast media procedure?
What is the best course of action for a patient experiencing a mild level contrast media reaction?
Observe and reassure patient
Which of the following is an example of vasovagal reaction?
A true allergic reation to iodinated contrast agent is classified as an
Tachycardia (>100 beats/min) is a symptom of a
Brachycardia (>50 beats/min) is a symptom of
Which of the following drugs may be given to minimize the risk for acute renal failure follwing a contrast media procedure?
Metformin is a drug given to patients with
Which one of the following drugs can be given as part of the premedication protocol before an iodinated contrast media procedure?
Excretion of a diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake is the general definition for
Constant or frequent involuntary passage of urine is termed
The absence of a functioning kidney is called
Complete cessation of urinary secretion by the kidneys is termed
T or F Adult forms of polycystic disease are inherent
Hypernephroma is another term for
Renal cell carcinoma
Extravasation is classified as an _______ reaction
Laryngeal swelling is classified as a
Severe level reaction
Hot flashes are classified as an
Which one of the following vein is not normally selected for venipuncture during an IVU?
At what angle is the needle advanced into the vein during venipuncture?
20 to 45 degree
How long should the venipuncture site be cleaned with an alcohol wipe before needle insertion?
How high should the tourniquet be placed above the puncture site?
3 to 4 inches (8 to 10cm)
T or F Bladder carcinoma is three times more common in males than females.
Which one of the following conditions may produce hydronephrosis?
Which one of the following pathologic indications is an example of a congenital anomaly of the urinary system?
T or F The patient should void before the IVU to prevent dilution of the contrast media in the bladder.
What is the normal range for a patient's BUN?
8 to 25mg/100ml
Which one of the following conditions would contraindicate the use of ureteric compression?
Typically, at what timing sequence during an IVU are the oblique projection taken?
20 min following injection
Which projections best demonstrates the renal parenchyma? When should it be taken?
Nephrogram or Nephrotomography
Immediately after completion of injection
Which procedure may require a BRONEY CLAMP?
Retrograde Urethrogram on a Male
Which specific body position will place the right kidney parallel to the IR?
30 degree LPO
T or F The gonadal does for the AP postvoid projection is higher for male patients than for female patients
T or F The retrograde ureterogram will demonstrate the ureters, renal pelvis, and major and minor calyces.
FALSE (primarily the URETER)