First Pass Effect
Hepatic effect in which some PO administered drugs do not make it to systemic circulation because they are removed by the Liver
In a dosage regiment, the instructions "b.i.d" would be what component?
Movement from a drug molecule from an injection site to the systemic circulation
Movement of a drug molecule into a compartment where it changes from a lipophilic state to a hydrophilic state and remains in the compartment.
Molecular process by which drugs move through fluid.
Ionized (or hydrophilic)
Form of a drug molecule that can not readily penetrate a cell membrane
Facilitated diffusion ( Not active transport)
Movement of drug molecules across a cellular membrane by using a carrier molecule and not requiring any energy expenditure by the cell
Alkaline ( Basic)
Type of drug (not drug molecule form) that becomes more ionized as the environmental PH becomes more acidic
Route of administration that typically reaches a peak almost as quickly as the route of IV administration
A smaller dose of a drug administered to keep drug concentrations in the therapeutic range after an initial , large dose of a drug.
Elimination ( Or Excretion)
Movement of a drug from systemic circulation out of the body
Movement of a drug from the blood into the brain would be an example of this movement of drugs in pharmacokinetics
Where the first pass effect occurs
Metabolism ( Or Biotransformation)
Conversion of a drug from active to inactive form by the liver
Movement of a drug from a tissue back to the blood and then to a second tissue
Movement of a drug from the intestinal tract, to the liver, to the blood and tissue, back to the liver, to the intestinal tract, and then reabsorbed back from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver.
The point at which a t.i.d administered drug achieves peak and trough concentrations that are the same from dose to dose
Route of administration in which a drug is injected into the layers of the skin
a drug that combines with a receptor and causes a cell to produce a physiologic change
240 mg q12h, 160mg q8h, 80mg q4h (6 X per day) 160mg t.i.d, 480 q24h 120mg q.i.d
The recommended total daily dose for a drug is 480mg. What are the equivalent total daily doses for the following dosage intervals? From a practical stand point, which schedule provides the greatest chance for client compliance?
__mg q12h ___mg q8h ___ mg q4h ___mg t.id
__mg q24h __mg q.i.d
Which one of the following drugs is absorbed in the greatest amount?
A. 100 mg of a drug administered, bioavailability 0.7
B 150mg of drug administered, bioavailability 0.5
C. 200 mg of a drug administered, bioavailability 0.4
D 250 mg of a drug administered, bioavailability 0.2
ID, SQ, IM
Rank the following injection routes in order of the most superficial to the most deep: Intramuscular, Intradermal, Sub Q
Into the abdominal or peritoneal cavity
If you were injecting a drug IP, in what body area would you inject it
A. Passive diffusion
B. Phagocytosis or pinocytosis
C. Active Transport
D. Facilitated Diffusion
Drugs move through the body by a variety of mechanisms, including diffusion and active transport. Which mechanism of drug movement is described by each of the following scenarios:
A. a local anesthetic injected SQ produces a spreading feeling of numbness in the skin
B. Large drug molecules are taken up by macrophage scavenger cells
C. The cells of the renal tubules accumulate concentrations of aminoglycoside antibiotic that greatly exceed drug concentrations
D. A hydrophilic drug that moves down a concentration gradient into a cell.
Ionized molecules, Nonionized
Will Ionized drug molecules dissolve more readily in water or fat? Which passes though membranes better: Ionized molecules or nonionized molecules
PH of 3
Which is a more Acidic environment : A PH of 3 or a PH of 7
Drug A is an acid drug. Is it more likely to be in the lipophilic or hydrophilic form when placed in a very acidic environment, such as the stomach?
pKa = 6, Alkaline drug
Drug B exists in the ratios of nonionized molecules to ionized molecules to ionized molecules at the following PH environments shown below:
@ PH of 4, 1 nonionized molecule is present for every 100 ionized molecules
@ PH 5, 1 nonionzied molecule is present for every 10 ionized molecules
@ PH 6, 1 nonionized molecule is present for every 1 ionized molecule
@ PH 7, 10 nonionized molecules are present for every 1 ionized molecule
What is the pKa of drug B?
Based on how drug B reacts as the PH become more alkaline (basic) or acidic, determine if drug B is an acid drug or a basic drug
C. Non ionized
D. Non ionized
E. Half ionized & Half non ionized
F. Non ionized
I. Non Ionized
Indicate which of the following hypothetical drugs is most likely to have a predominance of drug molecules in the ionized form and which in the nonionized form.
A. acid drug pKa of 3 placed in PH of 6
B. acid drug pKa of 2 placed in PH 9
C. acid drug pKa of 5 placed in PH of 2
D. acid drug pKa of 7 placed in PH of 5
E. acid drug pKa of 7 placed in PH of 7
F. alkaline drug pKa of 6 placed in PH of 9
G. alkaline drug pKa of 9 placed in PH of 8
H. alkaline drug pKa of 5 placed in PH of 2
I. Alkaline drug pKa of 5 placed in PH of 8
#1. Basic drug pKa of 9.4
#2. Acid drug pKa of 6.4
#3. Acid drug pKa of 8.4
#4. Basic drug pKa of 5.4
Rank the following drugs in order from 1 to 4, with 1 being the most rapidly absorbed and 4 being the slowest from SQ tissue with PH of 7.4
*Basic drug, pKa = 5.4
*Acid drug, pKa = 8.4
*Acid drug, pKa = 6.4
*Basic drug, pKa = 9.4
For each situation or condition below, state whether the dose should be increased or decreased to compensate for the condition and still achieve therapeutic concentrations in the body.
A. Half-Life for a drug is extended
B. Metabolism of a drug has been accelerated by exposure to phenobarbital
C. Hyperproteinemic animal given a drug that is highly protein bound
D. VD for a drug is decreased
A. 2 hours
B. 50 µ / mL
C. 20 µ /mL
D. 200µ / mL
E. 10 hours
(refer to # 32)
A. What is the half life
B. What was the concentration @ 4 hours
C. What was the concentration @ 7 hours
D. What is the estimated peak concentration that occurred shortly after the IV bolus was given
E. How long would it take multiple maintenance doses to reach a steady state for this drug
Indicate whether the following are true or false
A. If the metabolism of a drug has been induced, the dose of the drug is decreased to compensate
B. Excretion of a drug by the liver is called Biliary excretion
C. Neutralization of stomach acid by Tums or Rolaids is non-receptor mediated action
D. An agonist would typically have little or no intrinsic activity on a receptor to which it binds
E. If the Vd of a drug increases, the concentration of the drug decreases
Fenestrations, ( if drug is lipophilic)
If a drug is in hydrophilic form when given SQ, how is it able to enter the capillaries? Can it also exit the capillaries? Can it exit from all capillaries in the body?