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Motivation is defined by psychologists as

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.

Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n):

instinct

A need refers to:

a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.

need; drive

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as:

the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of:

incentives.

Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?

arousal theory

Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that:

hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed.

The set point is:

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.

About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from:

anorexia nervosa.

Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from:

bulimia nervosa.

The relative risk of death among healthy nonsmokers is highest for:

overweight men.

Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that:

obesity is more common today than it was 40 years ago.

The descriptions of orgasm written by men and women are ________, and the subcortical brain regions active in men and women during orgasm are ________:

similar; similar

Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that:

women's sexual interests are only loosely linked to the phases of their menstrual cycles.

Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience:

reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.

A homosexual orientation is:

very persistent and difficult to change.

A biological component of homosexuality is most clearly indicated by evidence of:

sexual interactions between same-sex organisms in several hundred different animal species.

Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best college teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of:

achievement motivation.

People who are high in achievement motivation prefer ________ tasks; people who are low in achievement motivation prefer ________ tasks.

moderately difficult; very easy or very difficult

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