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Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is:

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.

Although Adderall is a ________ drug, it is commonly used in the treatment of ________.

stimulant; ADHD

In one study, rats were given prolonged exposure to Ritalin early in life. When the drug was withdrawn later in life, the rats were more likely to show symptoms of ________ than were their control-group counterparts.

depression

According to the medical model, psychological disorders are:

sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured.

Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor's emphasis best illustrates:

a biopsychosocial approach.

The DSM-IV does not:

explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.

After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her disorder. This best illustrates the

biasing power of diagnostic labels.

Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from:

generalized anxiety disorder

Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from:

a phobia.

Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenthfloor apartment. In order to reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing:

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Repeatedly washing your hands is to ________ as repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________.

compulsion; obsession

The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by:

a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness.

The antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by:

a lack of guilt feelings.

The prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of:

emotional extremes.

A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as:

mania.

The risk of suicide is greatest when people:

begin to rebound from their depression.

People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing:

social rejection

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the ________ of inappropriate behaviors, and negative symptoms are the ________ of appropriate behaviors.

presence; absence

Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from:

schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for

dopamine.

Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that:

there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.

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