What are some characteristics of disordered eating? What can it do?
overeating, undereating, dieting, skipping meals, avoiding food groups, becoming a vegetarian, it can increase the risk of developing an eating disorder
Dieting..what is special about it? Why do people go on it?
the most common form of disordered eating, every eating disorder starts with dieting to feel good, to be healthy, etc.
How many people suffer from eating disorders? How many are men? How many women are dissatisfied with their appearance?
24,000,000 people nationwide suffer from eating disorders, 10% are men, 80% of women are dissatisfied with their appearance
Anorexia Nervosa...what's so special about it? What is it's mortality rate? What are the types? Characteristics?
has the highest premature fatality rate of any mental illness, 10% mortality rate, weight below 75% of expected normal body weight, intense fear of gaining weight, girls between 15-24 are 12 times more likely to die because of anorexia nervosa than the death rate of all causes of death, types: restricting type (no bing-eating/purging behavior), purging type (episodes of binging followed by purging, excessive exercising, laxative abuse)
Bulimia Nervosa..types? characteristics?
purging type: self induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas, non-purging type:exercise bullimia, fasting, diabulimia (lowering insulin intake for starvation)...characs: bing eating, lack of control, recurrent behavior to prevent weight gain, typically normal or slightly overweight
Binge Eating Disorder..characteristics?
frequent binges w/ sense of loss of control, without purging & w/ weight gain, often triggered by negative emotions & associated w/ depression
Food Avoidance Emotional Disorder (FEAD)..characteristics?
weight loss, low weight, mood disturbances: depression, anxiety, obsessionality, phobias, emotional disorder
refusal often episodic, intermittent or situational, eat favorite foods, typically does not impact health bu can affect quality of relationship w/ the child
food avoidance of certain type and texture, fear of swallowing, vomiting, choking
profound refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or self-care, underweight, dehydrated
narrow range of food of particular brand, type or color, diet often high in carbs., resistant to expanding food repertoire
typically never been very interested in food, always been small eaters, growth moves normally until puberty hits when they are unable to keep up w/ nutritional needs
What are the stereotypical characteristics of an anorexic?
white, middle class, educated, female, perfectionist, high achieving
What are the biological contributing factors for eating disorders?
genetic predisposition, medical conditions
What are the psychological contributing factors for eating disorders?
life stresses, low self-esteem
What are the societal contributing factors for eating disorders?
social& peer pressures, family pressures, sports, fat prejudice
What are the physiological maintaining factors for eating disorders?
starvation, disordered eating patterns
What are the psychological maintaining factors for eating disorders?
eating disorder as a way of coping w/ emotions, self-worth based on size and weight, starvation syndrome
What are the characteristics of the starvation syndrome?
personality changes, poor concentration & memory, introversion, loss of interest in usual activities
What are the maintaining societal factors of eating disorders?
peers and family reinforcement, dominant social values related to thinness
When should you suspect an eating disorder?
sudden weight loss, significant weight fluctuations, failure to gain weight while gaining in height, amenorrhea, constipation, involvement in certain sports
What are the health consequences of anorexia nervosa?
slow heart rate, low blood pressure, changes in the heart muscles, muscle loss & weakness
What are the physiological signs of bulimia nervosa?
puffiness in the cheeks, broken blood vessels under the eyes, sore throat, tooth decay, gum disease, top of fingers have small cuts or calluses, weight fluctuation 10-15 lbs., mood swings
Out-patient Treatment Team.. characteristics?
weekly follow up w/ PCP w/ low weight anorexics, psychotherapy, psychiatrist, nutritional evaluation
Outpatient medical visit..characteristics?
physical exam, monitor for weight changes, food is medicine
What medications are recommended in treating eating disorders?
multivitamin & minerals, calcium, estrogen (controversial), antipsychotic
How are eating disorders in adolescents usually handled?
parents are given charge to feed the child
What is the Maudsley Method?
family based approach, weight restoration is primary initial focus of treatment, parents are empowered to take charge of refeeding to bring child back to health
What are the keys to succesful treatment of eating disorders?
early ID, mobilization of resources and allies, aggressive treatment