Surgical Technology Examination Book

252 terms by bridgemaker

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Fundamental knowledge

Adnexa refers to

accessory organs

A drop is denoted by the abbreviation

gt

The abbreviation ung refers to

ointment

Proximal is a term that indicates a point

nearer to the body

Adduction means

movement toward median plane

Ischemic can be defined as

a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ

A cystocele is

a herniation of the urinary bladder

Nulli is a prefix that means

none

False is indicated by the prefix

pseudo

Tiny red or purple spots on the skin appearing as a result of a small hemorrhage within the dermal or submucsosal layers are called ?

Petechiae

Kerato refers to

horny (cornea of the eye)

the suffix lysis means

breaking down

The left eye is indicated by the following letters

OS

Tissue death is called

necrosis

The secretion of excessive sweat is also known as

diaphoresis

Which radiographic procedure has the ability to make images in multiple planes

MRI

The absence of a normal body opening,duct,or canal is called

atresia

Epistaxis can be defined as

bleeding from the nose

Blood gas analysis is called

ABG

A ganglion is a

collection of nerve ending

The lungs are covered in a serous membranous sac called the

visceral pleura

The passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system, and for air into the respiratory system,is the

pharynx

the vocal cords are located in the

larynx

The function of the trachea is to

conduct air to and from the lungs

The nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the

septum

The bones of the palm of the hand are referred to as

matacarpals

The muscles important in respiration are

intercostal

The thick,fan-shaped muscle that lies on the anterior chest is the

pectoralis major

The triangular muscle of the shoulder that abducts the arm is the

deltoid

Which of the abdominal muscles orginates at the pubic bone and ends in the ribs?

rectus abdominis

One of the principal muscles of the pelvic floor is the

levator ani

The gastrocnemius is the chief muscle of the

calf of the leg

A connective tissue band that holds bones together is called

ligament

The two bones that form the side walls and roof of the cranium are the

parietal bones

the sternocleidomastoid muscle is located

along the side of the neck

The medial bone of the forearm , which is located on the small-finger side of the hand is called

ulna

The bone that is shaped like a butterfly and forms the anterior portion of the base of the cranium is the

sphenoid

The bone that forms the posterior portion of the skull is the

occipital

The lower jawbone is the

mandible

The bone located in the neck between the mandible and the larynx, which supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles ,is the

hyoid bone

The audult vertebral column has

26 bones

How many cervical vertebrae are there ?

7

The bone in the axial skeleton that does not articulate with any other bone is the

hyoid

The number of pairs of ribs is

12

A slender,rodlike bone that is located at the base of the neck and runs horizontally is the

clavicle

The nucleus pulposus is the

cushioning mass within an interverebrae disk

The upper ,flaring portion of hipbone is the

ilium

A large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes is the

foramen magnum

The larger,weight-bearing bone of the lower leg is the

tibia

The bone that fits into the acetabulum,forming a joint, is the

femur

Another name for the kneecap is

patella

The membranes that line closed cavities within the body are called

serous membranes

The longest bone in the body is the

femur

A rounded protubrance found at a point of articulation with another bone is called

condyle

An infection of the bone is

osteomyelitis

The epiphyses are the

end of long bones

Oil gland of the skin are called

sebaceous

The periosteum is

the membrane that covers bone

A transparent structure that permits the eye to focus rays to form an image on the retina is the

lens

The purpose of the iris is to

regulate the amount of light entering the eye

The structure that is seen from the outside as the colored portion of the eye is the

iris

The nerve that carries visual impulses to the brain is the

optic nerve

The white outer layer of the eyeball is the

sclera

A jelly-like substance in the eye's posterior cavity is called

vitreous humor

The structure that connects the middle ear and the throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely is the

eustachian tube

The conjunctiva is the ?

covering of the anterior globe except the cornea

The number of pairs of spinal nerves is ?

31

The great sensory nerve of the face and head is the

trigeminal

The cranial nerve that contains special sense fibers for hearing as well as for balance is

VIII

The part of the brain responsible for maintenance of balance and muscle tone,as well as coordination of voluntary muscle, is the

cerebellum

The frontal,temporal,,parietal, and occipital lobes are divisions of the

cerebrum

The area of the brain that controls the respiratory center is the

medulla oblongata

The largest part of the brain is the

cerebrum

The outer most covering of the brain and spinal cord is the

dura matter

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates freely in the

subarachnoid space

The brain contains four fluid-filled spaces called the

ventricles

Which of the following structures transmits sound vibrations to the inner ear?

tympanic membrane

The winding,cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is

cochlea

Which of the following is not an auditory ossicle

cochelea

Cross-matching of blood

determines suitability of donor by mixing donor's RBC's with recipient serum

The highly specialized blood cell whose function is oxygen transportation is

red blood cell

A differential count provides an estimate of

the percentage of each type of white cell

Mixing of incompatible may result in

agglutination

Platelets are essential for

coagulation of blood

In the normal adult,the average number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter of circulating blood is

5000-10,000

A large superficial vein in the lower extremity,which begins in the foot and extends up the medial side of the leg,the knee and the thigh, is called the

greater saphenous

The vein in the bend of the elbow that is commonly used as a site for venipuncture is the

median cubital vein

The artery at the back of the knee is the

popliteal

The superior and inferior mesenteric arteries supply the

intestines

The vein that drains the veins of the chest wall and empties into the superior vena cava is the

azygos

The veins of the head and neck are drained by the

jugular veins

Which arteries supply the heart

coronary

The atrioventricular (A-V) node causes

at the base of the brain

Why would an aspirated foreign body be more likely to enter the right bronchus rather than the left bronchus?

the right bronchus is more vertical shorter,and wider than the left

The spleen filters

blood

Circulation that is established through an anastomosis between two vessels supplying or draining two adjacent structures is called

collateral circulation

Which artery supplies the head and neck?

carotid

The serous membrane that covers the heart is the

Pericardium

The circle of willis is located

at the base of the brain

The branch of the external iliac artery that is located in the thigh is called the

femoral artery

The descending aorta terminates at the level of the fourth limbar verebra, dividing into

two common iliac arteries

The contractions of the heart are synchronized and regulated by the pacemaker of the heart,called the

sinoatrial node

Tiny blood vessels that permeate and nourish tissue are called

capillaries

The wall or partition dividing the heart into right and left sides is called the

septum

The heart valve that close at the time the right ventricle begins pumping,preventing blood from returning to the right atrim,is the

tricuspid

The inner lining of the heart ,composed of smooth, delicate membrane, is called the

endocardium

The spleen is located

in the left hypochondriac region

parts of the lymphatic system

palatine tonsil, submandibular lymph nodes, cervical lymph nodes, axillary lymph nodes, mammary lymph node, iliac lymph nodes, inguinal lymph nodes, intestinal lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus gland, spleen

The S-shaped bend in the lower colon is called the

sigmoid

The reabsorption of water and electrolytes is the main function of the

large intestine

The terminal portion of the large intestine is the

anal canal

Which structure lies retroperitoneally

kidney

The first portion of the large intestine is the

cecum

The appendix is attached to the

Cecum

The primary function of the gallbladder is

storage of bile

when the gallbladder contracts, bile is ejected into the

duodenum

The area in the duodenum where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called

ampulla of vater

Which structure is also known as the "fatty" apron

greater omentum

The common bile duct is the union of the

cystic duct and hepatic duct

The yellow tinge in the skin symptomic of obstructive jaundice is caused by the accumulation of what substance in the blood and tissue

bilirubin

The head of the pancreas is located ?

in the curve of the duodenum

The sphincter at the junction of the small and large intestines is the

ileocecal sphincter

The portion of the small intestine that receives secretion from the pancreas and the liver is the

duodenum

The region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum is the ?

pylorus

The mesentery is

A double-layered peritoneal structure shaped like a fan

large central portion of the stomach is called the

body

The muscle serving as a valve to prevent regurgitation of food from the intestine back into the stomach is known as the

pyloric sphincter

The digestive passageway that begins at the pharynx and terminates in the stomach is the

esophagus

The point at which the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm is called the

hiatus

Adenoids are also called

pharyngeal tonsils

The function of the molar teeth is to

crush and grind food

Mumps occur in the

parotid glands

The salivary glands located under the tongue are the

sublingual

The liver has

two lobes

The glomerulus is a

cluster of capillaries

The tubes or cuplike extensions that project from the renal pelvis are called

calyces

Urine is transported along the ureters to the bladder by

peristaltic waves

The smooth, trangular area at the bottom of the bladder that contains three ening is called the

trigone

The kidneys are positioned

retroperitoneally

The kidney structure that filters blood , returns useful ubstances to blood , and removes substances from blood that are not needed is the

nephron

Blood is supplied to the kidney by means of the renal artery, which arises from the

abdominal aorta

The indentation in kidney through which all structures must pass as they enter or leave the kidney is the

hilus

The outer layer of the kidney is known as the

cortex

The portion of the male urethra that passes through the pelvic floor is called the

membranous portion

A lack of voluntary control over micturition is called

incontinence

Urine empties from the bladder through a tube called ?

Urethra

Fertilization occurs in the ?

fallopian tubes

The perineum is ?

the area between the vagina and the anus

The small, sensitive structure of the female homologous to the male penis is the ?

clitoris

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