Neuro structures and functions

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Olfactory Nerve

CN I - smell; cribiform plate with olfactory bulb

Optic Nerve

CN II - sight and pupillary reflex; optic canal with optic chiasm

Occulomotor Nerve

CN III - eye muscles except lateral rectus and superior oblique; superior orbital fissure

Trochlear Nerve

CN IV - superior oblique muscle; superior orbital fissure

Trigeminal Nerve 1

Ophthalmic CN V1 - sensory of nose to tip, eyebrows, and forehead; superior orbital fissure

Trgeminal Nerve 2

Maxillary CN V2 - sensory of upper lip and cheek; foramen rotundum

Trigeminal Nerve 3

Mandibular CN V3 - sensory of lower lip, chin, jaw, and in front of ear; foreman ovale

Abducens Nerve

CN VI - lateral rectus muscle; superior orbital fissure

Facial Nerve

CN VII - facial muscles of expression; internal acoustic meatus; exits at stylomastoid foramen

Vestibulocochlear Nerve

CN VIII - sensory of ear and hearing and vestibular sense; internal acoustic meatus

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

CN IX - upper pharyngeal muscles, parotid gland, sensory of pharynx, posterior 1/3 of tongue, tonsils, middle ear; jugular foramen

Vagus Nerve

CN X - parasympathetic efferent of internal organs: heart, lungs, trachea, larynx, pharynx, palate, GI tract; jugular foramen

Accessory Nerve

CN XI - sternocleidomastoid and trapezious muscles; jugular foramen

Hypoglossal Nerve

CN XII - tongue muscles and strap muscles supplied by ansa cervicalis; hypoglossal canal

Canals of Sphenoid bone

optic canal, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, superior orbital fissure

Canals of Temporal bone

foramen lacerum, internal acoustic meatus, ,jugular foramen

Canals of Occipital bone

hypoglossal foramen, foramen magnum

Foramen Magnum

vertebral arteries, medulla oblongota, spinal roots of accessory nerve

Foramen Spinosum

middle meningeal artery

Anterior Cerebral artery

enters longitudinal fissure; supplies forebrain

Internal Carotid Artery

neck and dumps into anterior and middle cerebral arteries

Middle Cerebral artery

supplies lateral sides of frontal and parietal lobes and temporal lobe

Posterior Cerebral artery

supplies occipital region

Anterior Communicating artery

connects two anterior cerebral arteries

posterior communicating artery

connects internal carotid to posterior cerebral artery

Pontine arteries

supplies pons and adjacent parts of brain

Superior Cerebellar artery

superior half of cerebellum and parts of midbrain

anterior inferior cerebellar artery

AICA: anterior inferior quarter of cerebellum

posterior inferior cerebellar artery

PICA: undersurface of cerebellum and notch between two hemispheres of cerebellum

Vertebral arteries

posterior spinal cord and dumps into basilar and posterior cerebral arteries

Basilar artery

supplies posterior cerebral and underside of brain

Circle of Willis

internal carotid, anterior cerebral, posterior cerebral, anterior communicating, and posterior communicating

Central Sulcus

divides frontal and parietal lobes

Precentral gyrus

main motor cortex; specific body map of discrete movements referred to as motor homunculus

Postcentral gyrus

main sensory cortex; specific body map of sensory discrimination referred to as the sensory homunculus - quality and location of senses (except olfactory)

Longitudinal fissure

divides two hemispheres of cerebrum

lobes of cerebrum

frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula

poles of cerebrum

frontal, temporal, occipital with gyri and sulci

parts of brainstem

midbrain, pons, medulla

Falx cerebri

part of dura in longitudinal fissure

Corpus Callosum

commissural fibers for interhemispheric communication

Fornix

under corpus callosum; limbic function - basic emotions, motivational drive and memory, divides to hippocampus

Thalamus

part of diencephalon under fornix and choroid plexus; sensory relay station for most CNS impulses before going to cerebral cortex for more processing (except olfactory senses)

Lateral geniculate body

nuclei of thalamus; visual relay

Medial geniculate body

nuclei of thalamus; auditory relay

Parts of Midbrain

pineal body, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, trochlear nerve

Pineal Body

endocrine gland related to circadian rhythm (sleep patterns)

Superior Colliculus

visual motor reflex

Inferior Colliculus

acoustic motor reflex

Parts of Pons

Cerebellar peduncles and 4th ventricle

Parts of thalamus

interthalamic adhesion, 3rd ventricle, lateral geniculate body, medial geniculate body

Cerebellar peduncles

tracts of fibers going to cerebellum seen when cerebellum is removed

Parts of Medulla

posterior median sulcus, gracile tubercle, fasciculus gracilis, posterior intermediate sulcus, cuneatus tubercle, fasciculus cuneatus, posterior lateral sulcus

Parts of Cerebellum

anterior lobe, primary fissure, posterior lobe, superior vermis

Anterior lobe of cerebellum

general function of controlling muscle tone

Posterior lobe of cerebellum

general function of coordinating voluntary motion

superior vermis

midline structure of cerebellum; function of equilibrium

Tonsils of cerebellum

an area or herniation

Flocculonodular lobe

cerebellum; equilibrium function

Frontal lobe of cerebrum function

voluntary motor control on oppostie side of body, motor planning, language execution, executive function of decision making, initiation of emotional expression and movement, social appropriateness

Parietal lobe function

discrimination of sensation from opposite side of body, sensory integration, language processing, awareness of body in space; superior and inferior parietal lobules

Supramarginal gyrus

inferior parietal lobule: functions in language processing, extracting meaning from language

Angular gyrus

inferior parietal lobule: language processing, understanding metaphors, connecting visual stimuli with language

Lateral sulcus

divides temporal lobe from parietal lobe and frontal lobe

Temporal Lobe function

primary auditory reception, memory

superior temporal gyrus

general auditory processing

transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl

primary auditory cortex

middle temporal gyrus

visual memory (recognizing faces)

inferior temporal gyrus

visual memory

Occipital lobe function

primary visual cortex and visual processing

Insula function

limbic function of providing an emotional context for sensory experience; pain perception

Parahippocampal gyrus

outer cortical gray matter surrounding the hippocampus - encoding and recognition of scenes and topography rather than races or objects

uncus

limbic and olfactory function (medial, superior edge of temporal pole)

Rhinal Sulcus

associated with parahippocampal gyrus

optic chiasm

partial crossing of optic nerve tracts

pituitary

endocrine function; with infundibulum

mammillary bodies

limbic function

Anterior Brainstem

some cranial nerves and anterior median fissure and anteriorlateral sulcus

Medulla

respiration, cardiac and vasomotor centers of function

Olive of medulla

related to cerebellum function (Lateral of anterior)

Pyramid of medulla

corticospinal tracts from cortex to spinal cord; voluntary motor (anterior of medulla)

Pyramidal decussation

crossing of the corticospinal tracts (lower medulla between pyramids)

Calcarine Sulcus

occipital lobe; either side is primary vision function

Cingular Gyrus

above corpus callosum; limbic - motor behavior initiation

Choroid plexus

processes cerebrospinal fluid

Hypothalamus

center for basic homeostatic function: temperature, thirst, hunger

cerebral aqueduct

duct that runs between 3rd and 4th ventricles

Median aperture

foramen of magendie; bottom of cerebrospinal fluid tract and goes posterior

arbor vitae

"tree branches" of cerebellum

Internal Capsule of cerebrum

white matter fibers coming and going to cerebral cortex

Basal Ganglia

a series of interconnected groups of cell bodies related to the initiation of behavior, intensity or amplitude of behavior and adjustment of behavior related to external cues all of which includes motor behavior

Caudate nucleus

C-shaped nucleus that follows the wall of the lateral ventricle and anterioroly blends with the lentiform nucleus

Lentiform nucleus

triangular shaped nucleus made of two distinct nuclei: Putamen and Globus Pallidus internus and externus

Substantia nigra

processes dopamine

red nucleus

circular nuclei; motor function

Hippocampus

memory and limbic

Lateral Ventricle

frontal horn, temporal horn, and occipital horn

Foramen of Monro

interventricular foramen; between 3rd and lateral ventricles

Foramen of Luschka

lateral apertures; runs anteriorly from 4th ventricle

Gray matter

dorsal horn (sensory and pain processing) and dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion (towards CNS from outside spinal cord); ventral horn; lateral horn (autonomic nervous system, thoracic region); gray and white commissure

Fasciculus Gracilis

discriminative touch and proprioception of lower body

Fasciculus Cuneatus

discriminative touch and proprioception of upper body

Whole Spinal cord

cervical enlargement, lumbar enlargement, conus medullaris (L1), cauda equina, meningies

Meningies of spinal cord

dura, arachnoid, pia, denticulate ligaments (connect dura to spinal cord)

dura mater

thick tough fibrous tissue that adheres brain to skull

falx cerebella

small slip of dura between cerebellar hemispheres

tentorium cerebelli

dura between the cerebrum and cerebellum

dural veinous drainage

veins from brain dump blood into a group of vessel like cavities that are made of dura; drain into jugular vein

superior sagittal sinus

mid-line on top of falx cerebri - contains arachnoid granulations

straight sinus

mid line on top of tentorium cerebelli

confluence of sinuses

where straight, superior sagittal, and occipital sinuses come together

transverse sinus

transversely at the level of the tentorium cerebelli; makes an impression in the skull

sigmoid sinus

s-shaped sinus just before the jugular foramen

occipital sinus

runs longitudinally behind occipital lobe

Cavernous sinus

at the base of skull just in front and behind the sella turcica

Arachnoid

wispy layer - blood vessels lie in the subarachnoid space; between dura and brain

arachnoid granulations

reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid

Pia

adherent to brain and spinal cord (between arachnoid and brain

Sagittal suture

parietal-parietal

Coronal suture

frontal-parietal

Squamosal suture

parietal-temporal

lambdoidal suture

parietal-occipital

Tympanic membrane

ear drum

malleus

seem through tympanic membrane; first bone of ear

incus

middle bone of ear

stapes

stirrup shaped bone of ear

Auditory tube

Eustachain tube

Oval Window of ear

Vestibular window

Round window of ear

cochlear window

Cochlea

snail shaped structure

Vestibular apparatus

maintains balance and spatial orientation

Bony labyrinth

osseous - bony structure surrounding inner ear

perilymph

fluid between bony and membranous labryinth

membranous labryinth

semicircular canals, vestibule, endolymph

semicircular canals

detect rotational acceleration of head; anterior, middle, posterior with ampulla

vestibule

detects linear acceleration of head and static gravity; utricle and saccule

utricle

macula - raised oval surface on wall of utricle that contains hair cells of the sensory epithelium; a gelatinous membrane containing calcium carbonate crystals called otoliths that stimulate the hair cells; more anterior and superior

saccule

contains macula; more posterior

endolymph

fluid within the mambranous labyrinth

Superior rectus muscle

upward gaze

medial rectus

medial gaze

inferior rectus

downward gaze

inferior oblique

extorsion of eye (bottom of eye rolls nasally)

superior oblique

intorsion of eye (top of eye rolls nasally)

lateral rectus

lateral gaze

cornea

membrane over top of pupil

sclera

white of the eye

anterior chamber

between cornea and iris; contains aqueous humor

Iris

colored portion of eye; Miosis and Mydriasis- pupillary constriction and dilation

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