The Egyptians belived the primary purpose for embalming was?
The Egyptians believed the secondary purpose for embalming was?
These are as old as the history of man. Preceeding much more recent devoplemts such as the treatment of disease, the formation of governments, and even the formation of definate religious beliefs.
the earliest period of assumed human existance
paleolithic period (stone age)
first to have a funeral. Comes after eolithic period
neolithic period (iron age)
30,000 BC- 6,000 BC.
6,000 BC- 600 AD
mideval period (dark ages/middle ages)
600 AD- 1850 AD
The culture known for immersing the body of the dead in earthen jars filled with honey or wax.
stated that egyptians were the FIRST to believe the soul was immortal.
"Father of History"; gave the first account of Egyptian embalming.
Guanches created mummies (with a flint knife called a tablona) that were referred to as:
circle of necessity
Ancient Egyptian belief that the soul of the deceased would make a 3,000 year journey and return to the body. Once reunited the whole man would LIVE WITH THE GODS. this belief created the need for embaming.
the civilization most influenced by the egyptian coffins.
The (Egyptian) city of the dead. located just OUTSIDE the city; contained places for burial, mortuary temples and residences of mortuary workers.
the walled suburb of a major city where embalming was performed.
The (Egyptian) element of the body which remained with the body in the grave and demanded attention from the living.
Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead. The god of resurrection, god of fertility, and also the god of the Nile.
The popularity of antropoidal coffins was attributed to:
The Egyptians believed this to be the most important organ. The source of wisdom, intellect, emotions, memory and the soul itself. For this reason it was generally left in the body.
Canopic jars came to represent (named for) the four cardinal points on a compass and the four sons of who?
early Egyptians cut massive coffins from a single mass of stone to protect from grave robbers. Rectangular in shape.
priest (physician or Kher-heb)
had total control of the embalming procedure. Considered the most prominent.
apothecary servent (pollinctor)
The one who anointed the body with the necessary oils, spices, and ointments and made medicines.
surgeon (chief embalmer)
The person responsible for wrapping the remains.
dissector (paraschistes or anatomist)
The person responsible for evisceration and the washing of the remains.
First procedure of Egyptian embalming
The most expensive procedure of embalming in Ancient Egypt. Utilized for nobility and the very wealthy. Only about 2% of the population utilized this method.
First procedure of Egyptian embalming
1) removal of the brain
3) immersion in natron
4) removal from natron
5) body is bandaged and spiced (anointed)
bandaged and anointed (last/5th step)
The most expensive step in the first procedure of egyptian embalming.
a salt found in dry lake beds of the desert and used by early Egyptians in preparation of bodies. Bodies immersed in the product (believed to be composed of chloride, carbonate, and sulfate of sodium and nitrate of potassium and sodium) were dehydrated thus preventing decay.
the second grade/medium priced method of embalming consisted of the injection of this into the abdomen usual through the anus, to dissolve the organs or viscera.
the place the Scandinavians referred to as the Land of the Dead.
Hebrew's dug shallow graves covered with a small amount of earth generally used for the indigent or poor.
sunken grave with a stone cover
Hebrew grave. Resembled the trench grave but was a little deeper and was vocered with a stone slab and generally used for the middle class
The oldest and most common form of Hebrew grave. A single chamber containing recess graves.
trench grave, sunken grave (with a stone cover), chamber grave, bench grave.
stelae (shafts); kiones (columns); trapezae (square cut); naidia (temple like)
Greek tomb. Upright slabs of stone.
Greek tomb. Column.
Greek tomb. square cut.
civilization credited with the introduction of cremation
supernatural guardian women, gave aid to certain heros during life, and after death bear them away to their abodes; use the grave mound and its spiritual residents for magic, inspiration, and wisdom.
believed to have sown the first seed of the blief in an immortal soul. The rites of this cult were intended to produce a wild excitement in which the limitations or ordinary sense life seem to be abolished. In such an ecstacy, alienation mentis, the soul was supposed to have left the body and winged its way to union with the gods.
the early Roman view of the afterlife which emphasized the soul as a vital principle. The soul at death hovered around the place of burial and required constant attention of the descendents to be happy. Neglect would bring evil upon them.
In ancient Rome, the master of ceremonies and director of the funeral procession.
a special funeral functionary in ancient Rome who summoned participants to a public funeral. OR the person who called out the Roman mourners and announched the funeral to the Republic.
head undertaker in ancient Rome; the secular role model for today's funeral director; conducted his buisness at the temple of Libitina where the death was also registered. OR the first secular funeral director in the western world.
the ancient Roman goddess of corpses and funerals
forerunner of today's hearse; a hand stretcher on which the uncoffined body was carried to the grave; among the first death devices used
religious/philosophical belief that the ancient Greeks and Oriental East emphasizing spiritual aspects of the afterlife and the hope of joining the cult god in a wonderful existence in eternity.
breath; the breath had a spirit-like substance that dwelt in life within the flesh, or more particularly within the blood. HEBREW term for SOUL.
HEBREW term for FLESH
originated as a Hebrew practice, family and friends sit with the deceased as a precaution against premature buiral; continued as an act of piety in the Middle Ages; Also known as a vigil for the dead.
kiss of peace
a major break in tradition between the Jews and Christians as each member of the family passed by in last review and kissed the deceased.
the Roman belief that the body and soul were composed of atoms that simply disintegrated after death was a philosophy attributed to whom?
con clamatio mortis
calling out of the dead; ceremonial farewell done by the Romans
a body of mortuary laws prohibiting excessive spending. Enacted in ancient Rome.
Catholic belief that those whose souls are not perfectly cleansed undergo a process of cleansing before they can enter heaven
bargber- surgeon guild
approximately 1540-1745. Were the sole agency permitted to embalm and perfrom anatomical dissections in the city of London
created in 1800's London by the "poor" people as a means to afford funerals; costs were shared by others via weekly collections; were the forerunners of industrial insurance.
Middle age practice where a person who, through ritual means would take on by means of food and drink the sins of a deceased person, thus absolving his or her soul and allowing that person to rest in peace
cloth treated with wax or a similar substance, esp. one used formerly to wrap a dead person for buria or a wax treated shroud.
the first Christrian emperor/Ruler; ROMAN
communion with the dead
the placement of a cup of wine in the coffin beside the body from which everyone drank as they passed the coffin was done as a final tribute to the dead. practiced in IRELAND AND SCOTLAND
mortuary fee paid to insure entrance of the decedent's soul into heaven.
Burial in Woolen Act
1666. required that woolen cloth be substituted for Lenin in the shroud and lining of the coffin; was an attempt to shirt the use of imported Lenin to the expanded paper industry of england and proved customers for the wool industry.
The frenchman who wrote the History of Embalming
Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek
considered the Father of Bacteriology
Frederick and Trump
received the first patent for the corpse cooler and cooling board
known as the father of Histology
introduced a gasoline powered hearse
culture known to have skinned the bodies of the deceased as part of the preparation procedure
colonial american trend in marking graves used inscriptions in the this form; served as a medium of popular literary expression
layers out of the dead
an occupation specialty in many larger US cities by the end of the 18th centery; the predecessor to the undertaker
performers of personal service in early america
cabinet- makers; livery; burses and mid-wives; layers out of the dead. (NOT doctors)
influenced the development of embalming schools
Auguste Renouard; Dr. Richard Harlan, Joseph H. Clark; A Johnson Dodge (NOT GANAL)
influence the development of chemical embalming
element of disinfection; the Civil war; a longer viewing period (NOT economic factors)
The name of the coin placed on the deceased's eyes, or in their mouth which they could use to pay Charon.
The Guild of All Souls
Established in London.
people wore more flamboyant attire
New language was adapted in the 1890's to disguise the death experience, the term casked was used in place of coffin; the shape of the coffin became rectangular; increase in use of embalming to present "sleeping person". one trend that was NOT a part of this movement was:
earliest methods of transporting the body included
3) horse-drawn carts
today, a vehicle specially designed to trasport casketed remains; derived from French word, herse; originally a stationary framework of wood to hold candles and decorations placed on the coffin; forerunner was a bier; hearse and bier were used interchangeably until mid 19th century; a funeral coach
credited for discovering hunter's canal
inventors of early funeral transportation
james cunningham; hudson samson; crane and breed
during 19th century, chemical manufacters offered following services
provided traveling salesman; provided training; provided warehouses; developed chemicals (did NOT teach others how to develop chemicals); provided training sessions
coffins in the 1800's:
aesthetically made; protect the body from grave robbers and the elements; protect the body from decomposition (NOT inexpensive)
type of ice chest placed over the torso of the body in order to slow down the process of decomposition prior to the funeral. It was typically a responsibility of the undertaker to provide and change the ice when it melted.
a portable table on which the body was plaed while the corpse cooler was in use; later became the embalming table when embalming was done in the home of the deceased
due to the fear of pre-mature burial, many American coffins were designed and patented with a method to alert the living if someone was buried alive.
: Patented in 1848 as form-fitting, air-tight metallic coffin designed to improve ability to preserve the body; also had a glass plate to allow for viewing the face. Anthropoidal in shape. In 1852 M.H. Crane and J.R. Barnes acquired the manufacturing rights from Fisk.
the Ogee design
Ogee design: An innovation introduced square sided caskets in order to reduce the excess space and weight, particularly of metal caskets; characterized by an "S" shaped curvature. "Ogee Rim".
this period of people had a preoccupation with regards to death and its macabre thoughts about rotting corpses and skeletons
inviter to funeral
a municipal officer who was specially connected with funerals in colonial America; called personally upon those expected to attend funerals' often a municipal appointment.
a municipal officer in colonial America; often appointed and had responsibility for duties pertaining to public health and sanitation
a church caretaker who had the responsibility for church property, ringing of the bells and digging graves in the churchyard cemetery. During the middle ages most funeral practices were under the direction of church officials
a generic term used in America to designate all burial receptacles as new variations of the coffin were being offered
from the french word "casse" meaning "jewel box" or container for something valuable; came into dominate use in patent literature for burial receptacles in the 1890's America. A rigid container which is designed for the encasement of human remains and which usually constructed of wood, metal, fiberglass, plastic or like material, and ornamented and lined with fabric
outer enclosure placed in the grave;originally intended to prevent grave robbery
hell; devided into FOUR regions
issued a report concerning unsanitary conditions in London. Created by intramural burials, the high costs of funerals and initated the first use of the death certificate and discussed the deplorable conditions of English cemeteries (however, did NOT incre. number of trade cemeterys)
leagues of prayer
formed in the middle ages by lay persons to bury the dead and to pray for the souls of the faithful departed
is a vault of building where human skeletal remains are stored.OR the places where the bones from the graves were stored
the widow was expected to wear a long pleated arrangement of fine linen, so called because it resembled a beard.
utilitarian container, athropodial in shape
his report recommended all the following changes:
1) all cemeteries were to be municipalized
2) all trade cemeteries were to be abolished
3) religious funeral rites were to be simplified and standardized
4) a medical officer was to certify the ause of death
provided supplies and merchandise (i.e. door badges, carraiges, etc.) to funeral undertakers who were dealing directly with the public. Furnishing undertakers filled the role of middle man. OR the name given to tradespeople who supplied goods for a funeral and may or may not have prepared the body
to disembowl or remove organs
Develpoped by Dr. Holmes. a method to apply a continuous flow of embalming solution via manipulation of a handheld mechanism, utilized for arterial inkection
apparatus to inject arterial fluid during the vascular (arterial) phase of the embalming process; relies on gravity to create the pressure required to deliver the fluid (.43 lbs per foot of elevation)