Florida BRT: Law Enforcement (Human Issues)

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During a crisis situation, officers have the duty to...

-Recognize & respond to the persons in crisis
-Intervene safely, professionally, & effectively
-Interact w/ community agencies to coordinate & resolve conflicts
-Make referrals to appropriate agencies

A _____ may be a situation or period that is very uncertain, difficult, or painful, especially a time when action must be taken to avoid complete disaster or breakdown.

Crisis

A _____ is defined by the person's perception and response to the event.

Crisis

If the person sees the event as significant or threatening, has used all coping strategies without effect, and is unaware of or unable to pursue other alternatives, a _____ exists.

State of crisis

What are some significant crises that nearly everyone may experience at some time?

-The death of spouse or loved one
-Financial loss
-Termination from a job
-Separation from family and friends
-Beginning of retirement

A crisis may be compounded by _____ factors, which are significant in the severity of the crisis & in determining how a person reacts to various situations.

-Economic
-Personal
-Social
-Psychological
-Physical

What are some behavioral characteristics a person in crisis may display?

-Verbal anger
-Physical signs
-Calm

Cursing, threats and shouting are all examples of _____ of a person in crisis.

Verbal anger

Flushed face, heavy, rapid breathing, clenching and unclenching fists, pacing, pointing fingers, tightening lips, clenching teeth, or sweating are all examples of _____ of a person in crisis.

Physical signs

The effect of the crisis and stress may cause a diminished capability for _____ & _____.

Thinking & decision making

What are the stages of a crisis?

-Recognition stage
-Attempted resolution stage
-Emotional blockage stage
-Accommodations stage
-Resolution stage

In the _____ stage, the person realizes he or she is unable to cope with the situation.

Recognition stage

In the _____ stage, the person struggles to resolve the situation using methods that have worked in previous situations.

Attempted resolution stage

The person's failure to resolve the problem leads to the _____ stage, where the person is unable to solve the crisis and is overwhelmed by emotions.

Emotional blockage

During the _____ stage, the person in crisis is open to suggestion and is willing to try new options.

Accommodations stage

In a crisis, a solution for the problem is achieved at the _____ stage.

Resolution stage

When responding to a crisis call, an officer should...

-Notify the communication center upon arrival at the scene
-Get as much info as possible from dispatch
-Update the communication center of any changes at the location

A low-profile arrival when entering a scene will maximize _____ and minimize _____.

Officer safety & officer vulnerability

When entering a scene, after assessing the situation, the officer should...

-Enter the scene safely & approach w/ caution
-Look for cover & concealment
-Survey entrances, exits, & grounds

When entering a building to respond to a crisis call, officers should remember that...

Someone could be lying in wait to ambush or kill them.

Immediately upon arrival, the officer should assess the subject's...

Physical, intellectual, emotional, and risk status.

Who must the officer manage during a crisis situation?

-Victims
-Witnesses
-Suspects

Crises may become more volatile if the officer injects...

his or her personal mood, bias, or prejudice

What is the goal when managing a scene during a crisis situation?

To restore or maintain order.

When managing a scene during a crisis situation, to reduce tension and calm the situation, an officer could...

Physically separate the disputing parties.

When managing a scene during a crisis situation, why should an officer direct persons to specific seats?

To reduce disputants' mobility and limit their access to weapons, exits, or other disputants.

When trying to calm an angry individual or defuse a situation, the officer should keep in mind...

The concepts of proximity and personal space.

To calm a situation and reduce tension, how can an officer reduce the noise level?

-Ask bystanders to leave
-Request that disputants talk more quietly
-Turn off other noise sources (tv's, radios)

_____ may calm disputants by forcing them to focus on the officer instead of the problem.

Quietly speaking

The officer can identify the person in crisis through...

Observation and by asking questions

When gathering information about the crisis situation, the officer should ask _____ questions that encourage conversation and explanation and avoid _____ questions.

Open-ended, closed.

Examples of intervention options during a crisis include...

-Relocating the person to a safe environment
-Taking the person into custody if he/she commited an arrestable offense
-Initiating an involuntary treatment referral via the Baker or Marchman Acts if criteria exist
-Making referral services
-Arranging for or providing transportation

In crisis situations, by law, a referral is required for...

-Domestic violence
-Child abuse
-Disabled adult or elder abuse
-Suicide risks

Officers are legally required to contact _____ for cases involving abuse.

Department of Children and Families

Florida statutes require that law enforcement follow appropriate agency policy and procedures to assist DCF. This may involve...

-Forced entry
-Emergency removal or transport of victims
-Enforcement of court orders

After identifying the need for referral in crisis intervention, the officer should locate a _____.

Service agency

_____ are designed to meet the needs of individuals in crisis and assist law enforcement with referrals.

Service agencies

A _____ describes service agencies by geographic area, the types of services available, eligibility criteria, an the process for obtaining services.

Community resource directory

In crisis intervention, the referral agency will attempt to...

-Remove the cause of the crisis
-Reduce the extent of the crisis
-Give the person alternative assistance for future crises

Officers should become familiar with the _____ available within their communities in order to provide appropriate referrals.

Agencies & services

_____ is responsible for the safe placement of abused and neglected children, the elderly, and disabled adults.

DCF

If a crime has been committed and the officer takes the suspect to jail, how does the officer provide transportation for the victim to another location?

The officer should contact victim services or assist the victim in arranging for private transportation.

Crises must be documented, at least in a general incident report, and should be detailed as possible including...

-Victim's and subject's statements
-Actions
-Reactions
-Physical condition
-Appearance

To understand the requirements regarding effective interactions with persons with disabilities, a law enforcement officer must understand the _____.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

The _____ is a federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities and requires common places used by the public to provide an equal opportunity for access.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

According to the ADA, an _____ is a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity, has a record of such impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

Individual with a disability

An _____ is defined as any mental or physiological condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods.

Impairment

Blindness, severe breathing limitation, deafness, inability to use arms or legs, paranoia, or schizophrenia are all examples of _____.

Impairments

Major life activities include...

-Caring for oneself
-Performing manual tasks
-Walking -Seeing -Hearing -Speaking
-Breathing -Learning -Working -Lifting
-Sitting -Standing
-Mental & emotional processes such as thinking, concentrating and interacting w/ others

According to ADA, a _____ is a restriction of the manner, condition, or duration in which a major life activities are perfored compared to nonimpaired people.

Substantial limitation

What are the most common ADA disabilities that law enforcement officers encounter?

-Mental retardation
-Mental illness
-Hearing impairments
-Speech impairments
-Mobility impairments
-Vision impairments

_____ states that no qualified individual with a disibility shall be discriminated against or excluded from participation in or sharing the benefits of the services, programs, employments, or activities of a public entity.

Title II of the ADA

In the event a disabled person with a service animal is arrested, the officer must...

Arrange care for the service animal.

In disability awareness, the officer should explain the _____ in terms the subject can understand, keeping in mind that the subject's vocabulary and understanding of the concept of _____ might be limited.

Miranda rights, rights

In disability awareness, whenever possible, an officer should ensure that someone who knows the individual is _____, and the officer should _____ the interview.

Present, videotape

In disability awareness, after an interview, the officer should inform the _____ and document the disability in the report regarding the interview.

State Attorney's Office

_____ is an impairment of the mental or emotional processes that exercise conscious control of one's actions or of the ability to percieve or understand reality, which imparment substancially interferes with a person's ability to meet the ordinary demands of living, regardless of etiology.

Mental illness

_____ is not directly related to intelligence and occurs in people of all intellectual abilities.

Mental illness

Mental illness is addressed in _____.

Chapter 394, F.S.

Mental illness may be temporary and usually occurs in ______ or _____.

Early adulthood (late teens, early 20's)
Middle adulthood (late 30's, early 40's)

In contrast with mental retardation, _____ may be cured, managed, or treated with counseling or medication.

Mental illness

People with _____ may have a thought, mood, or personality disorder.

Mental illness

People with a thought disorder such as schizophrenia are sometimes unable to accurately percieve reality. This inability is called _____, and the person may be referred to as _____.

Psychosis, psychotic

A _____ is a sensory experience in which a person can see, hear, smell, taste, or feel something that is not there.

Hallucination

A _____ individual may hear voices or claim that bugs are crawling under his or her skin.

Hallucinating

_____ is a false belief that is firmly held in spite of obvious proof or evidence to the contrary.

Delusion

A _____ individual could believe that he or she is someone famous or is being followed by the CIA.

Delusional

_____ & _____ are two common examples of mood disorders.

Major depression & bipolar disorder

Profound feelings of sadness, uncontrollable crying, inability to concentrate, suicidal thoughts, or problems sleeping and eating are symptoms of _____.

Major depression

Alternating episodes of depression and mania are the hallmark of a mental illness known as _____.

Bipolar disorder

_____ is the opposite of depression.

Mania

A person in a _____ episode feels charged up, high, or excitable.

Manic

An officer may observe the following symptoms in a person experiencing a manic episode...

-Loud, quick, uninterrupted speech
-"Racing" thoughts
-Fidgeting
-Hyperactivity

A person experiencing a _____ is easily distracted or may have an exaggerated sense of self, powers, and abilites.

Manic episode

Anxiety is another form of _____.

Mood disorder

Some people with _____ problems can have panic attacks so severe they mimic a heart attack.

Anxiety

During a _____ the person will likely experience rapid heartbeat, chest discomfort, sweating, tension, trembling, choking, and a feeling that something terrible is about to happen.

Panic attack

Excessive nervousness, tension, apprehension, excessive fear or anticipation of imminent danger, ritualistic behavior such as excessive hand washing, or flashbacks are examples of _____.

Anxiety disorder

A _____ is a deeply ingrianed, nonpsychotic, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of relating, percieving, and behaving, serious enough to cause distress or impaired functioning.

Personality disorder

_____ & _____are two types of personality disorders.

Antisocial & borderline

_____ is also known as psychopathic or sociopathic disorder.

Antisocial personality disorder

_____ is primarily a lifelong pattern of behavior that violates rules, social norms, and the rights of others.

Antisocial personality disorder

Individuals with _____ seem to lack the human capacity for empathy, guilt, and remorse.

Antisocial personality disorder

The hallmark of _____ is instability.

Borderline personality disorder

People with _____ often experience rapid and intense mood changes, typically involving angry, erratic, and impulsive behavior, and quickly changing feelings toward themselves or others.

Borderline personality disorder

Factors why some people with mental illnesses stop taking their medication include...

-They do not believe they need it.
-Side effects outweigh the benefits of medication
-Lack of money to fill prescriptions
-Transportation to get the medication
-No support from family or friends
-Past experiences w/ mental health system
-Misinformed about benefits from medication
-They may feel medication is harmful.

Another mental illness symptom may be part of a slow, deteriorating process, such as the dementia associated with _____.

Alzheimer's disease

When observing someone who displays mental illness symptoms, an officer should consider that the situation may be _____.

A medical emergency

According to Florida Statute 394.459, what are the rights of people with mental illnesses?

-The right to be treated with dignity
-To recieve treatment in a timely manner
-To recieve the least restrictive treatment available
-To recieve express & informed patient consent & treatment
-To recieve care & custody of their personal effects unless access to them is deemed inapropriate
-To recieve quality treatment

What are the response options of a law enforcement officer when dealing with a person in a mental health crisis?

-Release
-Voluntary examination
-Involuntary exam (Baker/Marchman Acts)
-Arrest

What are factors an officer should consider to determine if an individual with a mental illness can be released into the community?

If the person...
-Has a residence or stable housing
-Has an established support system in community
-Is actively experiencing symptoms that are severe or impair the ability to function
-Satisfies the criteria for protective custody or involuntary treatment

If the individual with mental illness symptoms is willing to seek treatment, the officer should ask him or her to submit to a _____.

Voluntary examination

A _____ is a decision by an individual to seek psychiatric evaluation for symptoms that may be due to a mental illness.

Voluntary examination

To submit to a voluntary examination, the individual MUST be...

-Compotent
-Able to make a decision
-At least 18 years of age

The _____ provides for emergency service and temporary detention for evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community inpatient treatment, if necessary.

Baker Act

A person may be taken to a recieving facility for involuntary examination if there is reason to believe that they have a mental illness and because of the mental illness the person...

-Has refused voluntary exam after conscientious explanation & disclosure of the purpose of the exam
-Is unable to determine for him/herself whether exam is necessary and without care or treatment the person is likely to suffer from neglect or refuse to care for him/herself
-There is a substantial likelihood that without care or treatment the person will cause serious bodily harm to him/herself or others in the near future, as evidenced in recent behavior

When a person is Baker Acted he/she must be examined within _____ of arrival upon admission to a recieving facility.

72 hours

In a Baker Act situation, if the exam does not determine the person meets the criteria for involuntary treatment under Florida Statute, the person...

Must be released unless he/she consents to voluntary treatment.

If probable cause of a crime exists, the officer may decide that _____ is the appropriate intervention for a person with a mental illness.

Arrest

If the subject with a mental illness is arrested for a _____ the officer should transport the individual to an appropriate recieving facility.

misdemeanor

With mental illnesses, a misdemeanor criminal charge can be handled by...

-A Notice to Appear
-Referral to State Attorney for arrest warrant
-Or another action according to department policy.

When a person who satisfies Baker Act criteria is taken into custody for a _____, he or she should be transported to jail unless emergency medical treatment is necessary.

Felony offense

At booking, the officer must notify the detention supervisor of the arrestee's mental illness and document the Baker Act criteria on the _____.

Arrest advisory

If the subject with mental illness symptoms agrees to a voluntary exam, he/she can be transported to the medical facility by...

-Family
-Friends
-Support agency personnel

When transporting a person for a involuntary exam under the Baker Act, in addition to a normal incident report, the officer must complete a form called the _____.

Report of Law Enforcement Officer Initiating Involuntary Examination

The Report of Law Enforcement Officer Initiating Involuntary Examination is commonly referred to as a _____.

BA-52

When completing the Report of Law Enforcement Officer Initiating Involuntary Examination form, the officer is required to...

Cite specific criteria under Florida Statutes that make the individual eligible for involuntary examination.

_____ means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior that manifests before the age of 18 and can reasonably be expected to continue indefinitely.

Mental retardation

A mental disability resulting from a _____ is not considered mental retardation unless the affected person is less than 18 years old.

Head injury or disease

A child under the age of 18 who suffers severe brain damage from a fall is considered to have _____, even if the child was of normal intelligence before the fall.

Mental retardation

Mental retardation is not considered to be a _____.

Mental illness

Mental retardation is a lifelong condition and is addressed in _____ F.S.

Chapter 393

_____ is characterized by slow intellectual development and requires development evaluation.

Mental retardation

_____ cannot be cured but the individual's capabilities and independence may be enhanced.

Mental retardation

What are the four levels of mental retardation?

-Mild
-Moderate
-Severe
-Profound

The majority of individuals with mental retardation are at the _____ level of retardation and may not be easily identifiable.

Mild

Persons with _____ & _____ levels of mental retardation are often victims of a criminal act committed by caretakers or family.

Severe & Profound

Individuals with _____ & _____ levels of mental retardation may cover up their disabilities and appear "normal."

Mild & Moderate

At the _____ retardation level people can learn academic and prevocational skills with special training and normally live and work within their community.

Mild

Individuals at the _____ retardation level can be independent in familiar surroundings but may be frustrated by unfamiliar surroundings and circumstances.

Moderate

Individuals at the _____ retardation level can learn functional academic skills and may be able to perform semiskilled work under supervised conditions.

Moderate

An officer should not ask questions about possible reasons for someone's behavior but should...

-Ask one question at a time.
-Explain unfamiliar terms such as "lawyer," "right," and "evidence."

Indviduals with _____ may not be able to distinguish between abstract and concrete thought.

Mental retardation

An officer should watch interviewees with mental retardation for clues because they might be...

-Easily intimidated
-Eager to please
-Generally in agreement with authority

The _____ provides information and support to individuals and agencies working with persons with mental retardation.

Association of Retarded Citizens (ARC)

The two major types of communication disabilities are _____ & _____.

-Hearing impairments
-Speech impairments

Identify the rights of a person with a communication disability.

-They have the right to be heard, even if it means bringing in an interpreter.
-They may not be excluded or segregated from services.
-They may not be denied services.
-They may not be treated differently.

A _____ is a physiological condition that causes difficulty in producing sound or understanding language, including reading and writing.

Speech impairment

Stuttering and slurring of words are common examples of _____.

Speech impairments

A _____ refers to any degree of hearing loss.

Hearing impairments

The two classifications of hearing loss are _____ & _____.

-Hard of hearing
-Deafness

A person who is _____ my suffer from a hearing loss but not to the extent that he or she must rely on visual communication.

Hard of hearing

_____ is a hearing loss of such severity that the individual must rely on visual tools such as writing, gestures, and lip-reading to communicate.

Deafness

A large majority of Florida cases involving defendants who are _____ are dismissed because of events occuring before Miranda rights are explained.

Hearing impaired

_____ is the ability to understand what is being said by watching the lips, facial expressions, and body language of the other speaker.

Lip-reading

_____ is the least effective form of visual communication.

Lip-reading

When communicating with a person with a heaing impairment, an officer should...

speak to the person face to face.

If an interpreter is being used, the officer should...

still speak directly to the individual with the hearing impairment and not the interpreter.

What type of aids are used to help with communication.

-A computer process
-Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD)
-An assistive listening device

Some persons with _____ may have poor balance and/or slurred speech and therefore may appear intoxicated.

Hearing impairments

The _____ for the Deaf should be supplied in writing and conveyed by a sign language interpreter to the suspect's level of understanding.

Miranda Rights

A person who is _____ cannot knowingly waive his or her rights unless the warning is given in his or her language.

Deaf and has limited understanding of the English language

When dealing with the deaf, a(n) _____ may be required in situations such as interviews, interrogations, arrests, Miranda rights advisory, court appearances, and trials.

Interpreter

A qualified _____ is a person who can both recieve and express information and interpret it effectively, accurately, and impartially.

Sign-language interpreter

The ADA defines _____ as a funtional limitation that affects one or more of a person's limbs.

Mobility impairment

_____ refers to a loss or partial loss of vision.

Vision impairment

The types of vision impairments that an officer will encounter most often are _____ & _____.

-Blindness
-Partial sight

_____ is a functional loss of vision.

Blindness

_____ is a visual impairment in which, after correction, objects still look dim or out of focus.

Partial sight

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