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produces new bone

Osteoblast

breaks down old bone

Osteoclast

chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction

Acetylcholine

at the end of bones, facilitates joint movement

Articulating cartilage

bone resorption is greater than bone formation, compression fractures of the vertebrae may result, kyphosis and loss of height frequently develop, treatment includes dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D

Osteoporosis

an inherited disorder, X-linked recessive gene, patients with the disease often have trouble using their legs as young as two to three years of age and are unable to easily stand or climb stairs

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

degeneration of articulating cartilage in joints, pain is increased with weight-bearing activities, movement is limited by osteophytes and irregular cartilage surfaces, damage is irreversible and usually progressive

Osteoarthritis

a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction, usually found bilaterally in small joints with symmetrical progression to other joints, pannus covering the cartilage and a lack of nutrients are what cause articular damage, during exacerbation of RA the joint appears to be red, swollen and is tenderankylosis and deformity develop as a result of RA because the skeletal muscle atrophies, fibrosis occurs in the joint, and the alignment of bones is altered, systemic affects include nodules in tissues, fatigue and anorexia, using Glucocorticoids as a long term treatment for RA may result in osteoporosis

Rheumatoid arthritis

differs from the adult form in that rheumatoid factor is not present in JRA, but systemic affects are more severe

Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis

purulent synovial fluid present in a single, swollen joint

Septic arthritis

monosodium urate or uric acid crystals are deposited on the articular cartilage of joints, attacks are precipitated by sudden increases in serum uric acid levels, termed hyperuricemia and may develop if renal excretion is not adequate

Gout

a chronic, painful, degenerative inflammatory arthritis primarily affecting spine and sacroiliac joints, causing eventual fusion of the spine, progressive inflammation begins at sacroiliac joints and progresses up the spine, causes rigidity, postural changes, and osteoporosis

Ankylosing Spondylitis

they are fibrocartilage, they prevent excessive movement of joints

Menisci

tear in a ligament

Sprain

tear in a tendon

Strain

a chronic syndrome (constellation of signs and symptoms) characterized by diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, fatigue, and a wide range of other symptoms, specific trigger points for pain and tenderness is the distinguishing feature of primary fibromyalgia syndrome

Fibromyalgia Syndrome

hives

Urticaria

skin disorder that occurs when there is an increase in mitosis and a shedding of the epithelium results, causes silvery plaques on an erythematous base

Psoriasis

disease manifested by large vesicles that coalesce and rupture

Pemphigus

excessive fluid collecting between the layers of the tunica vaginalis

Hydrocele

manifestations include hesitancey, dribbling and frequency of urination (because of incomplete emptying of the bladder), prostate is englarged

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

The disease does not normally progress to prostatic cancer

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

A thick, clear to whitish discharge from the vagina or cervical canal, pH of 4-5, contains mucus

Leukorrhea

an infection and inflammation of the female reproductive organs. It can scar the tubes that carry eggs from the ovary to the uterus which can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain and other problems

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

The infection can easily spread to the peritoneal cavity because the fallopian tubes are obstructed and the exudate cannot drain into the uterus. Chlamydia frequently causes this and subsequent infertility

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

a benign smooth muscle neoplasm, common complications include abnormal bleeding such as menorrhagia

Leiomyoma

an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period

Menorrhagia

progressive development of fluid-filled cysts and fibrous tissue in the breast

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

causes inflammation of the vagina with copious yellow discharge and foul odor

Trichomoniasis

bleeding between menstrual cycles

Metorrhagia

the cause is an opportunistic yeast, causes dysuria and dyspareunia (difficult or painful intercourse), the mucosa becomes red pruritic

Vaginal candidiasis

synthetic hormones used to create testosterone supplements

Anabolic steroids

muscles waste away because of disuse, associated with immobilization and chronic illness

Disuse Atrophy

refers to an irregular curve in the spine which results in a hump at the upper back

Kyphosis

fractures are those that break through the skin

Open fractures

occurs when the distal radius is broken

Colles' fracture

During the fracture healing process, the ____ is the structure into which granulation tissue grows

hematoma

The procallus or ___ __ serves as a splint across the fracture site serves as a splint across the fracture site

fibrocartilaginous callus

The process of healing a bone may be complicated by inflammation around the fracture site which may lead to ___ ____ & ____ (these as well as presence of osteomyelitis delay the healing).

severe ischemia and tissue necrosis

example: fat emboli from a broken femur can lead to pulmonary inflammation and obstruction

Specific problems can arise due to broken bones

Another problem that can occur with joints is dislocation, where a bone loses its articulation

the joint can look deformed

Pain can be a result of ___ & ___ and is a symptom of osteogenic sarcoma as well

fractures, dislocations

the pain from ___ ___ is steady and can persist during rest as well as activity

osteogenic sarcoma

The skin is composed of three layers

epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue

___ ___ & ___ extend through the dermis and subcutaneous tissue up to the edge of the epidermis, but are not technically part of the outermost epidermis

Blood vessels and nerves

Many problems are associated with the skin and vary in ___ & ___

signs and symptoms

with type I hypersensitivity, ____ is a common effect in response to ingested substances

urticaria

frequently develop secondary infections because of the entry of resident flora while scratching the lesion

Pruritic (itchy) lesions

can cause furuncles, cellulitis and impetigo (extremely contagious).

S. aureus

is another disease that affects the skin

Herpes

A common initial signal that a recurrence of herpes simplex infection is developing is

a mild tingling or burning along the nerve pathway or on the mouth or lip

Herpes virus is usually spread by ___ during an exacerbation, contact with the fluid in the lesion, and ___ by fingers

saliva, autoinoculation

are effective in treating such infections (herpes), because they limit the acute stage and viral shedding

Antiviral drugs

shingles

Herpes zoster

causes painful vesicles along a dermatome or cranial nerve pathway, and is more common in older individuals

Herpes zoster, or shingles

cause diseases such as genital warts and plantar warts

Other infections include the human papillomavirus which has many forms

is a sexually transmitted viral disease is a major predisposing factor for developing cervical cancer

HPV

can affect the skin as well

Fungal infections

tinea

Fungal infections

another skin condition caused by mites burrowing into the epidermis, which causes itching

Scabies

can be diagnosed when nits are found on hair shafts

Pediculosis (lice)

must have a human host and is easily contracted by contact with an infected person.

Lice

can also affect the skin in several forms including squamous cell carcinoma for which a major predisposing factor is exposure to UV light.

Cancer

male gonads

testes

Each of the testes is suspended by a

spermatic cord

formation of sperm

Spermatogenesis

is controlled by follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone and occurs throughout a man's life

Spermatogenesis

failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum)

cryptorchidism

infertility and testicular cancer can result

When cryptorchidism occurs

commonly noticed because of signs including soft, tender, enlarged glands and dysuria

Acute prostatitis

usually spreads to the bone if it metastasizes

Prostatic cancer

A useful serum marker during treatment for prostatic cancer is a

prostate-specific antigen

is the most common cause of acute bacterial prostatitis

E. coli

If a hard nodule is found in the peripheral area of the prostate gland, it is typical of a

malignant tumor

Testicular tumors usually present as

hard, painless masses

The female reproductive cycle is

complicated

During one stage of the reproductive cycle, the ___ ___ forms, and secretes estrogen and progesterone during the last half of the menstrual cycle

corpus luteum

Portions of the female reproductive system are locations of common cancers including

breast cancer

refers to tumor cells that may demonstrate estrogen receptors on the membrane

Carcinoma of the breast

also vulnerable to cancer

cervix

___ __ __ is the stage of cervical cancer where there is a rapid growth that occurs years after the first indication of dysplasia (abnormal growth

Carcinoma in situ

can be identified early via minor vaginal bleeding or spotting

Endometrial carcinoma

Sexually transmitted diseases can be easily transferred to a mother to a fetus or newborn during delivery, including (6)

gonorrhea, Chlamydia, herpes simplex, syphilis and HIV

flat, circumscribed

macule

firm, raised deep

nodule

small, solid elevation

papule

raised, often with a 'head,' filled with exudate of 'pus'

pustule

thin wall, raised, fluid filled

vesicle

slightly elevated, flat, 'scale-like' lesion

plaque

cavity in tissue

ulcer

crack in tissue

fissure

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