Diseases of Arteries & Veins Part 2

62 terms by Chrsdibble 

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Inflammatory Disease --> Chronic Venous Insufficiency

What is Vasculitis?

Inflammation of blood vessels

What are the characteristics of Polyarteritis Nodosa?

Numerous inflammatory nodules form in small & medium size vessels.

What vessels would you expect to see polyarteritis nodosa in?

Small & Medium size

What vasculitis disease is typically found in small and medium size vessels?

Polyarteritis Nodosa

What vasculitis disease is characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules?

Polyarteritis Nodosa

What population is typically associated with polyarteritis nodosa?

I.V. drug abusers

What are the symptoms of polyarteritis nodosa?

Anorexia, weight loss, NVD, organ effects due to ischemia, and increased risk of thromus, stroke and aneurysm.

Why does polyarteritis nodosa increase risk of thrombus, stroke & aneurysm?

Inflammation damages the BV walls activating the clotting cascades.

How do we treat polyarteritis nodosa?

High-dose corticosteroids & immunosuppression

What is the most common vasculitis?

Giant Cell Arteritis

What group of people is most effected by Giant Cell Arteritis?

Elderly

What vasculitis disease is typically found in large size vessels?

Giant Cell Arteritis

What vasculitis is identified by branching off the larger arteries?

Giant Cell Arteritis

What large arteries are typically effected by Giant Cell Arteritis?

Opthalmic, Temporal, Vertebral

What are the characteristics of giant cell arteritis?

Inflammation develops raidly and eventually involves the entire vessel wall.

What type of cells would you expect to see with giant cell arteritis?

Multinucleated

What are some common manifestations of giant cell arteritis?

Headache, blurred vision, blindness, aortic aneurysm (10% of patients) and 50% have polymalgia.

How do we treat giant cell arteritis?

High-dose corticosteroids

What is Buerger disease?

Inflammation of the peripheral arteries

What is another name for Buerger Disease?

Thromboangiitis Obliterans

What population would you typically see buerger disease in?

Young men who are heavy cigarette smokers

What is the main cause of buerger disease?

Cigarette smoke

What are the characteristics of buerger disease?

Vasospasm, thrombus formation, destroys function of small & medium arteries in extremities.

What vasculitis disease destroys function in small & medium arteries in the extremities?

Buerger Disease

What are the manifestations of Buerger Disease?

Pain, tenderness, sluggish blood flow, ischemia, hypoxia, skin & nails "thin", and gangrene if severe.

How do we treat Buerger Disease?

Stop smoking and vasodilators

What is Raynaud Phenomenon & Disease?

Uncontrolled vasospasm of small arteries in the fingers and toes.

What vasculitis disease effects primarily small arteries in the fingers and toes?

Raynaud Phenomenon & Disease

Name the vasculitis disease(s) that are caused by inflammatory response:

1. Polyarteritis Nodosa
2. Giant Cell Arteritis
3. Buerger Disease

What are some examples of causes of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Frostbite, butchers, jackhammers

What group does Raynaud Disease primarily affect?

Healthy young women exposed to stress and cold.

What are the possible causes of Raynaud Disease?

Sympathetic over-activity

What are some manifestations of Raynaud Disease?

Numbness, Tingling, Ischemia, cyanosis, Rubor after vasospasm, brittle skin and nails, gangrene and ulceration if severe.

How do we treat Raynaud Disease?

Avoidance, vasodilators, sympathetic denervation if intractable.

Name the vasculitis disease(s) that are caused by trama:

1. Raynaud Disease
2. Raynaud Phenomenon

What do we call a blood clot that can occur in arteries or veins?

Thrombus

What are the causes of a thrombus?

Injury, stasis of blood, surgery, immobility, hypercoaguability, post-partum, and atherosclerosis.

What is a thrombus?

Blood clot

What do we call an obstruction of a blood vessel by something that lodges there?

Embolism

What is an Embolism?

Obstruction of a blood vessel by something that lodges there.

What is the most common cause of embolism?

Clot

What can cause a embolism?

Thrombus, bacteria, fat...broken long bone, lymphatic blockage, air, and cancer cells.

Why is deep vein thrombus more common than arterial thrombus?

Stagnant blood at a lower pressure

Where would one expect to see deep vein thrombus?

Lower legs

What are the symptoms of DVT?

Often asymptomatic, swelling, edema, pain with compression

What is the bancroft sign?

Pain with compression typically in the legs.

How would we treat DVT?

Thrombolytics and anti-coagulants

How does TPA work?

Breaks up clot

How do anti-coagulants work?

Prevents formation of clots

What are some common agent that can be used to prevent the formation of a DVT?

Warfarin, and Aspirin

What disease is characterized by distended vein in which blood has pooled?

Varicose Veins

What are varicose veins?

Distended vein in which blood has pooled.

What veins are typically effected by varicose veins?

Large veins of the leg

What are the causes of varicose veins?

Prolonged standing, pregnancy, and obesity.

What are the manifestations of varicose veins?

Painful, unsightly, swelling, edema.

It is important to know that varicose veins are rarely serious but may lead to _______ _______ ________ which is dangerous.

Chronic venous insufficiency

What is Chronic Venous Insufficiency characterized by?

Failure of venous valves to close

What are some causes of chronic venous insufficiency?

Chronic distention of veins
Varicose veins
Trauma to valves

What are the manifestations of CVI?

Pathological changes to tissues due to ischemia, accumulation of wastes, hypoxia.
Stasis dermatitis, stasis ulcer
Marked edema of feet & ankles
Poor healing

What is a common inflammatory skin disease that occurs on the lower extremities in patients with chronic venous insufficiency with venous hypertension?

Stasis Dermatitis

What are wounds that are thought to occur due chronic venous insufficiency, usually of the legs. They are the major cause of chronic wounds, occurring in 70% to 90% of chronic wound cases.

Stasis Ulcer

How do we treat chronic venous insufficiency?

Elastic stockings, avoid standing, elevate feet, and surgery

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