A&P II Lab - Anatomy of the Urinary System

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ureters

drain urine from the kidneys and conduct it by peristalsis to the bladder

urinary bladder

provides temporary storage for urine

urethra

drains the bladder

trigone

the triangular region of the bladder which is delineated by three openings (two ureteral and one urethral orifice)

prostatic; membranous; spongy

the three sections of the urethra

renal capsule

a smooth transparent membrane that tightly adheres to the external part of the kidney

kidney cortex

the superficial kidney region which is lighter in color

medullary region

the region deep to the cortex -- segregated into triangular regions

Renal pyramids

triangular regions of the renal medulla

renal columns

areas of tissue which segregate and dip inward between the pyramids

renal pelvis

medial to the hylus, a fairly flat basinlike cavity that is continuous with the ureter, which exits from the hilus region

major calyces

the large or primary extensions that subdivide to contact the renal pyramids

minor calyces

subdivisions of the larger tubes that draw urine from the renal pyramids

nephron

the anatomical units responsible for forming urine

glomerulus; renal tubule

the two major structures of the nephron

renal corpuscle

the glomerulus-capsule comples is also known as the ____

cortical nephrons

nephrons found in the cortex

juxtamedullary nephrons

these nephrons have loops of henle that extend into the medulla

collecting ducts

approaching the renal pelvis, these fuse to form larger papillary ducts -- empty the final urinary product into the calyces and pelvis of the kidney

peritubular capillary beds

capillary beds that surround the convoluted tubules

glomerulus

capillary bed found in the Bowman's capsule

afferent arteriole

feeds the glomerulus with blood

efferent arteriole

drains the glomerulus

peritubular capillary bed

capillary bed that arises from the efferent arteriole draining the glomerulus

juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)

region of each nephron which is important in forming concentrated urine

filtration, reabsorption, secretion

the three processes that composes urine formation

filtration

a largely passive process where a portion of the blood passes from the glomerular bed into the glomerular capsule

tubular reabsorption

occurs when the filtrate components move through the tubule cells and return to the blood in the peritubular capillaries

tubular secretion

the reverse process of tubular reabsorption -- important in controlling blood pH

micturtion

the process in which urine empties from the bladder

external urethral sphincter

skeletal muscle that is voluntarily controlled in the process of urination

internal urethral sphincter

a smooth muscle that is an involuntary sphincter in the process of urination

incontinence

the lack of voluntary control over the external sphincter

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