Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

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Chapter 55 Exam IV

Bioremediation

This is the use of organisms, usually prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify polluted ecosystems.

Biological Augmentation

This is the use of organisms to add essential material to a degraded ecosystem.

Greenhouse Effect

CO2, water vapor, and other gases reflect infrared radiation back towards Earth, this is known as?

Biological Magnification

concentrates toxins at higher trophic levels, where biomass is lower.

Critical Load

is the amount that plants can absorb without damaging the ecosystem.

Biogeochemical Cycles

Nutrient circuits in ecosystems involve biotic and abiotic components and are often called this?

Trophic Efficiency

is the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next.

Turnover Time

is the ratio of the standing crop biomass to production.

Production Efficiency

is the fraction of energy stored in food that is not used for respiration.

Secondary production

is the amount of chemical energy in food converted to new biomass during a given period of time.

Actual Evapotranspiration

Is the water annually transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape. This can represent the contrast between wet and dry climates.

Limiting Nutrient

is the element that must be added for production to increase in an area. Nitrogen and Phosphorus are typically the nutrients that are most needed in marine production.

Eutrophication

This is the addition of large amounts of nutrients to lakes or other bodies of water.

Gross Primary Production (GPP)

this is the total primary production in an ecosystem.

Net Primary Production (NPP)

this is the Gross Primary Production minus the energy used by primary producers for respiration.

Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)

This is a measure of the total biomass accumulation during that time.

Primary Production

in an ecosystem is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period.

Primary Producers

these are autotrophs, the very bottom of the food chain.

Primary Consumers

these are the herbivores, they eat the primary producers

Secondary Consumers

these are the carnivores, they eat the secondary consumers.

Tertiary Consumers

these are the carnivores that eat other carnivores.

Detritivores

these are the bastards that decompose rotting organic matter. These consist of prokaryotes and fungi.

Detritus

this is the nonliving organic matter that detritivores.

The Law of Conservation of Mass

states that matter cannot be created or destroyed.

Ecosystem

consists of all the organisms living in a community, as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact. These range from a microcosm, such as an aquarium, to a large are such as a lake or forest.

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