CSW certified specialist of wine exam

48 terms by terahb

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what type of disease is botrytis and what are the effects?

fungal disease can be good for fully ripening grapes or bad on ripening grapes and can cause gray rot

what are the two most damaging fungal diseases?

powder mildew-also known as oidium
downey mildew-also known as perenospera

how do grape growers fight fungus?

sulfur or commercial fungicide sprayed on the vines

describe fungal diseases

spread by airborne spores and are an issue with warm humid conditions which are ideal for fungus

describe pierces disease

bacteriological contamination of host vine causing premature leaf fall. Can be spread by sharpshooters (glassy winged sharpshooter) or leaf hoppers

bacterial diseases are more likely spread how?

insects of animals that carry microbes

viral diseases can be spread by what?

by propagating infected vine cuttings

various grapevine diseases are caused by 1 of 3 things

viruses, bacteria, fungus

name 3 broad categories of climates

Mediterranean, continental, maritime

describe maritime climate

strongly influenced by ocean, high rainfal and mild temperatures

describe continental climate

far from ocean effects, hot summers and colder winters. Sometimes experiences less rain that maritime

describe Mediterranean climate

warm dry summers, mild wet winters and low humidity. Short summer growing seasons not good for grape growing

what is the scientific term for wine making

oenology

define viticulture

the cultivation of grape vines

define coulure (shatter)

a disease where flowers fail to develop causing poor fruit set

define millerandage

(abnormal fruit set) grape bunches that have a high proportion of small seedless grapes to normal seed bearing grapes caused by bad weather

typically how many days after bud break does flowering occur?

40-80 days

where in the world is wine growing optimum?

30-50 degree latitude both north and south

at what age are most commercial vines dug up?

25-30 years however old vines 20-100 years can produce great quality

it takes how many years for a vine to produce optimum quality?

6 years

a newly planted or grafted vine will produce grapes in what year?

1-2 years but are substandard and generally removed to allow vine to focus on trunk and roots

In the vineyard what is the method of propagation?

cloning

branches are sometimes called?

arms or canes when their young

what is field grafting?

cutting a small incision of the trunk and inserting an uprooted cutting from a desired vine in another vineyard

true or false? The warmer it is the faster the plant respires and the quicker the acid levels drop, cool nights are beneficial for ripening grapes

true because it minimizes acid loss when photosynthesis is occuring

what acid is utilized and broken down during respiration?

malic acid

what are two key components to a vines metabolic process?

photosynthesis-green leaves produce sugar from sun
respiration-opposite of photosynthesis sugar and chemicals are broken down to produce energy for roots and leaves

are vitis vinifera self propagating?

yes pollen is blown by wind to polinate a flower which then develops a seed

how long after verasion does harvest take place

1.5 -2 months

clone vs field selection

clone is taken from a single plant
field selection is taken from many vines

define mutation

a vine that develops different characteristics than its parents or fellow clones, pinot blanc and pinot gris a mutants of pinot noir

what is a scion

vinifera part of a vine which has been grafted on american rootstock

what notable character do north american vines have over vinifera?

natural resistance to phylloxera root louse
* growers learned vinifera shoots could be grafted on American trunks to get resistant vines

what is the second type of grape species used commercially typical of North America?

labrusca produces well known concord grape, sweet but not good for wine because of its foxy character

define cross or crossing

offspring of sexual reproduction of different subspecies within the same species. Cabernet sauvignon is a cross between cab franc and sauvignon blanc

hybrid

offspring of sexual reproduction between two closely related species such as vinifera and labrusca

how many years must a grower stop using pesticides to qualify for organic?

3

is there a certification necessary for biodynamic growing?

yes through a private company called demeter international

what is the unit of measurement used in France to measure alcohol

baume milimeters / 100 millimeters of wine

what is the measurement used in germany to measure alcohol?

oechsie (density of grape must-1.0) x 1000

how do you roughly calculate approximate alcohol?

brix / 2 refractometer is used to calculate

define pergola system

vines are trained up a tall support and then allowed to spread horizontally

define guyot trainning

each vine is trained along a wire single guyot in one direction double guyot in 2 directions

define cordon trainning

same as guyot except spur trained
*spurs become very woody like trunk

define head training or bush training

no trellis used and the vine grows like a bush or a miniature tree

what was the cause of Europe's vine devastation and what was the remedy?

phyloxera they grafted american rootstock to the plants

most serious pests are?

phyloxera root eating louse

scientific, french and german term for botrytis

botrytis cinera
pourriture noble
edlfaule

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