Science Exam Review

97 terms by nick1 

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Cell

Basic unit of stucture and functionin living things

Cell Membrane

Controls what cen enter or leave the cell

Cell Wall

Rigid layer that surrounds plant cells

Cytoplasm

Gel-like substance between the nucleus and cell membrane

Cholorplast

Captures energy from sun and uses it to produce food for plants

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Transports proteins in the cell

Golgi Body

Packages proteins in the cell

Lysosomes

Breaks down particles in the cell

Mitochondria

Produces energy for the cell

Nucleus

Directs all the cell's activities

Ribosomes

Where proteins are made in the cell

Vacuoles

Storage area for the cell

Circulatory System

Carries needed materials to the body cells; carries wastes away from body cells; helps fight diseases

Digestive System

Takes food into the body, breaks foo down, and absorbs the digested materials

Endocrine System

Controls many body processes by means of chemicals

Excretory System

removes wastes

Immune System

Fights diseases

Muscular System

Enables the body to move; moves food through the digestive system; keeps the heart beating

Nervous System

Detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within the body; controls most body functions

Reproductive System

Produces sex cells that can unite to create offspring; controls male and female characteristics

Respiratory System

Takes oxygen into the body and eliminates carbon dioxide

Skeletal System

Supports the body, protects it, and works with muscles to allow movement; makes blood cells and stores some materials

Skin System

protects the body, keeps water inside the body, and helps regulate body temperature

Alleles

Te different forms of a gene

Dominant

An allel whose trait always show up in the organism

Genetics

Scientific study of heredity

Genotype

An organism's genetic makeup

Heredity

Passing of traits from parents to offspring

Heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a trait

Homozygous

Having two identical alleles for a trait

Phenotype

An organism's physical appearance or visible traites

Probability

The likelihood that a particular event will occur

Punnett Square

A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

Recessive

An allele that is masked (covered up) when a dominant allele is present

Trait

A characterisitic that an organism can pass on to its offspring

Atom

The smallest particle of an element

Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

These are particles of an atom

Proton

Positively charged particles of an atom

Electrons

negatively charged particles of an atom

Neutrons

Neutral

Nucleus of an Atom

This contains protons and neutrons

Outside

The electrons surround the ______________of the nucleus of an atom

Atomic Number

This is equal to the number of protons and electrons

Atomic Mass

This minus the atomic number equals the number of neutrons of an element

Ion

Atoms that have become electrically charged

Positive Ion

The loss of an electron

Negative Ion

The gain of an electron

Covalen Bonding

This occurs when atoms share electrons

Ionic Bond

This occurs when there has been a loss/gain of electrons

Exothermic Reaction

Releases energy after a reaction

Endothermic Reaction

Absorbs energy after a reaction

Period

Horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

Group/Family

Verticle column of elements in the periodic table

Al

Aluminum

Ca

Calcium

Cl

Chlorine

H

Hydrogen

Mg

Magnesium

Hg

Mercury

N

Nitrogen

P

Phosphorus

Pt

Platinum

K

Potassium

Na2CO3

Washing soda

C3H8

Propane

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

NH3

Ammonia

NaCl

Sodium choloride

NaHCO3

Baking soda

CH4

Methane

C3H8O

Alcohol

C12H22O11

Sucrose

Indicator

A compound tht changes color when in contact with an acid or a base

pH scale

Range of values from 0-14 that express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

Acidic

Less than 7

Basic

More than 7

7

This is neutral

Density

Mass / volume

Volume

Mass / density

Mass

Density X volumn

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