A&P FINAL studyguide

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Which of the following can contribute to receptor specificity

Tissue location of the receptor cell

Thermoreceptors

Scattered immediately beneath the surface of the skin

A receptor that contains many mechanically gated ion channels would function best as a

Tactile Receptor

Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called

Proprioceptors

Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called

Baroreceptors

Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called

Ruffini Corpuscles

Chemoreceptors are located in all of the following, except

At the level of the Larynx

Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations

Muscle length, Pressure, Vibration, Touch

Gustatory receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to

Receptor Specifity

Pain is to ________ as cold is to ________.

Nociceptors; Thermoceptors;

. ________ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure

Baroreceptors

. The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest"

Parasympathetic

Sweat glands contain ________ receptors

Cholinergic

Nicotinic receptors

Use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter

Muscarinic receptors

Slow G protein, coupled responses, parasympathetic

Parasympathetic stimulation

Increase gastric mobility

Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving

An organ recieving both sympatheic and parasympathetic nerves

Which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex

Pupillary reflex, Defacation reflex, Vomitting, Ejaculation

Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

Memory consolidation

The conscious state is maintained by the

Reticular Activating System

An age-related decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory,
language, and personality is called

Senile Dementia

The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are ________ waves

Alpha

In deep sleep

Delta waves, breathing slows down, body temp decreases, no eye movement, bed wett, sleep walking, night tremors

Alzheimer disease is characterized by all of the following, except that it

Has a clear genetic basis

The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state(s)

Trauma

. The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following

Thorocolumnar division

Sympathetic nerves

Regulate body temperature

During sympathetic activation, ________ occurs

Elevated BP, HR, blood glucose, & sweating

Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, except

Decreased HR

Damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to

Dilate the right pupil

Injury to the cervical sympathetic ganglia would affect the function of the

...

Drugs that have effects similar to those of sympathetic activation are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of
the following would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken a sympathomimetic drug

Decreased BP

Most sympathetic effector junctions release norepinephrine but a significant number release acetylcholine
instead. Which of these is an example of an organ of the cholinergic type

...

A certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. This drug probably binds
to ________ receptors

...

Which of the following would lead to increased heart rate

Increased sympathetic input, decreased parasympathetic input

Drugs known as beta-blockers may be useful for treating

High BP

Drugs that stimulate alpha receptors, causing constriction of peripheral vessels, are

Sympathomimetric

Drugs that block nicotinic receptors would be

Autonomic blocking agents

Parasympathetic blocking agents can be useful in treating

Urinary Inconsistence

A doctor places drops in the eyes to dilate the pupils for an examination. The type of drug that is used is

Adrengic activating drug, muscannic blocking drug, sympathetic drug

As the result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1 and T2 on the left side of Brad's body are severed.
What organ(s) would you expect might be affected by this injury

Left pupil & heart

A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his
hairs stand up. These signs are the result of

Increased levels of epinepherine, increased activity of autonomic centers, sympathetic activation

Mary accidentally ate poison mushrooms that contain muscarine. What symptoms would you expect to observe

Salivation, sweating, very low HR, diarrhea

Hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD, function by

Stimulating serotonin receptors

The inherited brain disorder Huntington disease is caused by the destruction of basal nuclei that use different
neurotransmitters. One neurotransmitter is ________ and the other is ________.

Acetylcholine; Serotonin;

The regulation of awake-asleep cycles appears to involve an interplay between brain stem nuclei that use
different neurotransmitters. The one that favors alertness is ________ and the other promoting deep sleep is
________.

Nonrepinepherine & serotonin

. Olfactory glands

Coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus

The mucus that covers the olfactory epithelium does all of the following, except that it

Dissolves unwanted chemicals and washes them away

Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to

...

All of the following are true of olfactory pathways, except

Decussate at the level of mamillary bodys

Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these
special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors

...

Gustatory receptors are located

On the surface of the tongue

The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of

Olfactory receptors

Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the

Olfactory bulb

The largest numbers of taste buds in adults are associated with the

Circumvallate Pappillae

Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves

VII, IX, X

All of the following are true of the fibrous tunic of the eye, except that it

Contains pain receptors

The vitreous body

Helps stabelize eye & gives support to the retina

The ________ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye

Bulbar (ocular) conjunctiva

The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the

Cornea

The part of the eye that determines eye color is the

Iris

The opening in the iris through which light passes is the

Pupil

The space between the cornea and the iris is the

Anterior Chamber

The space between the iris and ciliary body and the lens is the

Anterior chamber (fluid filled space)

What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision

INS

The neural tunic

includes a pigment layer & an inner retina that lines the viterous body

The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by

changing shape

The shape of the lens is controlled by the

Vascular tunic

In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the

Cornea

The ciliary muscle contracts to

Adjust shape of the lens for nerve vision

There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are
designated

red/green; blue/yellow; black/white;

An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the

Fovea

The first step in the process of photoreception is

Ospin Activation

Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound

Rhodopsin

A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is

Visual pigments

The external ear ends at the

Tympanic membrane

The auditory ossicles connect the

Tympanic membrane to the oval window

The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the

Auditory ossicles

The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors of the

Inner ear

. The structure that overlies the organ of Corti is the

Tectonal membrane

The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the

Flexible membrane in the cochlea

Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the

Utricle & Saccule

The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the

Ampullae

. Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals

Capolcis

The hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in

Maculae & statoconia

Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on

...

Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the

Auditory Ossicles

The frequency of a perceived sound depends on

Which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated

Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places

Portions of the larynx, pharnyx, & surface of the tongue

Taste buds are monitored by which cranial nerve(s)

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) & facial nerve (VII)

A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to
cranial nerve ________.

Glossopharyngeal

Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain

Cerebrum

A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order

conjunctiva, cornea, aqueous, tumor lens, vetreous body, retina, choroid

A sty ________

results from blocked glands

Which of the following is a function of tears

Provide oxygen, wash away debris, lubricate eye, nourish the cornea and conjuctiva

The ________ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the ________ ear, which contains auditory ossicles

Outer; Middle;

The external acoustic meatus ends at

Tympanic membrane

The ________ conveys information about head position with respect to gravity

Vestibular system

The cornea is part of the

outer fibrous part of the eye

The gelatinous material that gives the eyeball its basic shape is the

Vitreous humur

If your vision is 20/15, this means that you can

Stand 20ft away from an object and see it as a person stand 15 ft away from the object can.

A sound with a frequency of 12,000 hertz would

be high pitched

A sudden rise of room brightness would cause

rapid dialation of pupils

Why do things look blurry underwater without dive goggles or mask

light is refracted different under water

In which of the following cases would the focal distance be greater

...

When a rod is stimulated by light

...

Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of

Tooth ache; Motor commands the jaw to deliver pain in the face

Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system

Direct long term functions such as growth

The ________ nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord

Central

Functions of astrocytes include all of the following, except

Functioning in action potential transmision

Small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called

Microglia

Glial cells that surround the neurons in ganglia are

Satellite cells

Which of the following is not a recognized structural classification for neurons

Pseudopolar

Axons terminate in a series of fine extensions known as

Terminal aborization

The site of intercellular communication between neurons is the

Synapse

The rabies virus travels to the CNS via

Retrograte axoplasmic transport

Sensory neurons of the PNS are

Unipolar sensory neurons

. Ion channels that are always open are called ________ channels

leakage

The following are the main steps in the generation of an action potential.
1. Sodium channels are inactivated.
2. Voltage-gated potassium channels open and potassium moves out of the cell, initiating repolarization.
3. Sodium channels regain their normal properties.
4. A graded depolarization brings an area of an excitable membrane to threshold.
5. A temporary hyperpolarization occurs.
6. Sodium channel activation occurs.
7. Sodium ions enter the cell and depolarization occurs.
The proper sequence of these events is

4,6,7,1,2,3,5

Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system

chemical

The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is

Calcium

The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse.
The correct sequence for these events is

4,2,6,7,1,8,3,5

If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked

Synaptic transmission would fail

IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)

A grate hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane

Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated

Spatial summation

The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system innervates

A muscle of gland

Integral membrane proteins that connect electrical synapses are called

Connexons

The same ________ can have different effects depending on the properties of the ________.

Neurotransmitter; receptor;

Deteriorating changes in the distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma is called
________ degeneration

Wallerion

The cytoskeleton of the perikaryon contains which of the following

Neurofilaments, neurotubules, neurofibrils

The axoplasm of the axon contains which of the following

Neurofibrils, neurotubules, small vessicles, lysosomes, mitochondria

________ neurons are short, with a cell body between dendrite and axon, and occur in special sense organs

Bipolar

. ________ neurons are the most common class in the CNS

multipolar

________ account for roughly half of the volume of the nervous system

Neuroglia

Ion channels that are always open are known as

Leakage channels

. ________ open or close in response to binding specific molecules

Chemically gated channels

Any stimulus that opens ________ ion channel will produce a graded potential

Gated

Which of the following statements about the action potential is false

The rapid depolarization phase is caused by the entry of potassium ions

. For which of the following functions do active neurons require a supply of ATP

Active neurons

When pressure is applied to neural tissue, all these effects are possible, except

Glial calls degenerate

In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves by

Wallerion Degeneration

Most CNS neurons lack centrioles. This observation explains

Neurons loose their centrioles during differentiation and they become incapable of cell division

. Each of the following is an example of a neuroeffector junction, except the junction between a neuron and a(n)

...

Extensive damage to oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in

...

Damage to ependymal cells would most likely affect the

Formation of the cerebralspinal fluid

. If the permeability of a resting axon to sodium ion increases

Inward movement of sodium will increase

Graded potentials

...

If the potassium permeability of a resting neuron increases above the resting permeability, what effect will this
have on the transmembrane potential

Inside of the membrane will become more negative

How would the absolute refractory period be affected if voltage-regulated sodium channels failed to inactivate

Larger than normal

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