During what approximate years was the Industrial Revolution in Britain?
Who was most responsible for developing a practical steam engine?
What is industrialization?
The development of ways to produce goods by machines
In terms of power sources, what was the major change of the Industrial Revolution?
From animal and natural power to steam power
The production of what type of goods triggered the Industrial Revolution in Britain?
What was the enclosure movement?
A process in Britain by which small farms were bought up by rich landowners and then rented to tenant farmers.
What is the 17th century movement called in which small English farms were bought up by rich landowners and combined into large estates?
The enclosure movement
What did Jethro Tull invent?
The seed drill
What was the advantage of the seed drill over traditional methods of planting?
Less waste, because seeds were planted more carefully in well-spaced rows.
When did Jethro Tull invent the seed drill?
Who invented the seed drill?
What was the advantage of crop rotation over the older two- or three-field systems?
It wasn't necessary to leave any land fallow
What does "fallow" mean?
Why does crop rotation work without wearing out the soil?
Because some crops use certain soil nutrients that are restored by other crops.
What was the major disadvantage of the enclosure system?
It forced small farmers either 1.) to lose their independence as tenants or 2.) to have to leave the land altogether.
Where did many of the small farmers go when the enclosure system forced them off the land?
1.) To the colonies 2.) To the cities
When was Europe's first real population explosion?
What country is usually said to have started the Industrial Revolution?
What were the six inventions that transformed Britain's cotton industry?
1.) the flying shuttle; 2.) the spinning jenny; 3.) the water-frame; 4.) the spinning mule; 5.) the power loom; 6.) the cotton gin
What were the three important stages of the cotton industry?
1.) cotton growing; 2.) spinning; 3.) weaving
Once a new invention is developed, what then triggers more inventions?
Other stages in the process can't keep up and are forced to invent new machines
Who invented the cotton gin?
Steam power was first used in what industry?
What was the advantage of steam power over wind or water power?
Steam engines could work anywhere.
What famous machine did Eli Whitney invent?
The cotton gin
What was the big breakthrough in land transportation after roads and canals?
In what country were the first railroads built?
How did railroads help the Industrial Revolution?
They made it easier 1.) to bring raw materials to the factories; and 2.) to take finished goods to the public
Who first smuggled the new secrets of the Industrial Revolution to the US from Britain?
What was the Industrial Revolution's big change in the organization of production?
From small home-based production to large factories
What held back the industrialization of Europe until about 1815?
The French Revolution and Napoleonic wars
Who was the most powerful nation in Europe in the 19th century?
Besides London, what was the most famous of England's new industrial cities?
What was the city of Liverpool's main function in the Industrial Revolution?
What social class benefited the most from the Industrial Revolution?
The middle class
What new social class developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution?
In what kind of industry was child labor the most exploited?
What does the term "laissez-faire" mean?
That government would keep its hands off business and industry
What was the Peterloo Massacre?
British troops attacked British citizens attending a peaceful pro-democracy rally, killing 15 and injuring 100s
Did the Industrial Revolution increase or decrease tensions between social classes?
What were the three main developments of the Transportation Revolution that took place in England in the early 19th century?
Canals, better roads, and railroads
What was the significance of the Factory Act of 1825?
It introduced the first child labor laws.
What introduced the first child labor laws?
The Factory Act of 1825
What was the first of the six major cotton-production inventions?
The flying shuttle
What was the last of the six major cotton-production inventions?
The cotton gin
When was the flying shuttle invented?
When was the cotton gin invented?
Who was most responsible for developing the modern crop rotation system?
What did Edward Jenner discover in 1796?
The smallpox vaccine
Who discovered the smallpox vaccine?
Where was the Peterloo Massacre?
St. Peter's Fields, Manchester, England
When was the Peterloo Massacre?