1910-1990, 20C Classical/Film/Broadway American composer, West Side Story, On the Town
1908-1992, 20C French composer and organist, very religious themes, bird calls, harmonically static/meditative, "Quartet for the End of Time"
Modes of Limited Transposition
Collection of notes that do not change when transposed by certain intervals, i.e. octatonic, whole tone, no pull for resolution
1913-1976, 20C English composer, wrote "Peter Grimes" opera and "War Requiem" (he was a pacifist)
Britten, first English opera since Purcell
1910-1981, 20C American composer, committed to tonality, used 12 tone rows in a tonal framework, "Adagio for Strings" and "Hermit Songs"
1916-1983, 20C Argentinian composer, nationalism and international styles, third stream composer
Crossing/merging jazz and classical styles, Ginastera
1905-1998, 20C English composer, synthesis of Javanese gamelan, English renaissance music, non-western styles
20C Summer meetings in Germany, discussed new ideas about music, Webern was leader of these new trends, Pierre Boulez, Stockhausen, Babbitt
Serialism of durations, intensities, timbres, etc. in addition to pitch, Babbitt, Boulez
1916, leading serial composer and theorist in the United States, "Third String Quartet"
1st European composer to write a total serialism work, "Structures"
1908, non-serial American composer, experimented with rhythms, metric modulation, virtuosic parts
Changing from one meter/tempo to another using common denominators
1912-1992, American composer, used prepared piano, stretched music as far as possible, explored new sounds, "Imaginary Landscape No. 3" and "Sonatas and Interludes" (for prepared piano)
Composers leave some decisions up to chance, random ways to decide which lines to play (i.e. toss a coin), "Music of Changes" by Cage
Composer leaves some decisions unspecified, "4'33"" by Cage
1929, 20C composer, used lots of unique instruments, toy piano/musical saw/harmonica/mandolin, "Black Angels" (string quartet=electronically amplified for dream-like atmosphere)
Using recorded sound, 1st work= "Symphony for One Man" by Pierre Henry
Gesang de Junglinge (Song of the Youth)
Stockhausen, use both recorded (musique concrete) and electronic sounds
Poeme electronic (Electronic Poem)
Varese, electronic and recorded noises
Babbitt, recorded music + live soprano
1922-2001, Greek composer, mathematical and architectural composer, "Metastaseis" (each string player gets a unique part)
1933, Polish composer, textural composer, graphic notation, invented new notional devices (i.e. player chooses one of four patterns), clusters, "Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima" (52 string instruments)
1923, Hungarian composer, music is constantly in motion, harmonically and melodically static, used micropolyphony=canons moving at differing tempos, "Lux aeterna"
1913-1994, Polish composer, used indeterminacy
Using sections/influences of existing music in a new work, "Hymnen" by Stockhausen
Multiple quotations forming a new work, "Black Angels" by Crumb quotes "dies irae" and Schubert's "Death and the Maiden"