the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
suggests how we explain someone's behavior—by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
feelings often based on our beliefs, which predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
"us"—people with whom one shares a common identity.
the tendency to favor one's own group.
"them"—those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction, strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
social psychologist, conducted the Stanford Prison Experiment, criticized for unethical study
social psychologist (also cognitive), conducted conformity study
social psychologist, conducted the Milgram Experiment on Obedience, criticized for unethical study
A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
marked fear of social or performance situations.
the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc.
a standard, model, or pattern.
the variable and subjective distance at which one person feels comfortable talking to another.
discrimination (social behavior)
treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit: racial and religious intolerance and discrimination.
the greater difficulty people have in distinguishing between members of a different race compared to one's own race
diffusion of responsibility
a social phenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a cbertain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned.
refer to the reciprocal views of one another often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.
prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.
facial feedback hypothesis
states that facial movement can influence emotional experience.
central route persuasion
attitude change path in which interested peple focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route persuasion
attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness