Application Compatibility Toolkit
A collection of tools, advice, and methodologies that guides the IT administrator in determining which legacy applications are compatible with Windows 7.
A small applet that can be mounted directly onto the Windows 7 desktop.,
How has the Windows 7 Firewall been improved?
The Windows 7 firewall contains profiles containing seperate settings for three types of networks: Home, Work, and Public.
A term used to describe the appearance of more than one application sharing the CPU of the computer. To the user, the applicaitons all seem to be running at the same time.
Really Simple Syndication. A format for distributing content as articles. Internet Explorer 7 is capable of reading RSS feeds.,
A system to tunnel IPv6 addressed packets over an IPv4 network, even if NAT is used on the IPv4 network.
A motherboard module that is used to store encryption keys and certificates. Supports Bitlocker encryption.,
What are the benefits of each version of Windows 7?
Windows 7 Home Premium
Full Aero interface. Multiple Monitor support, Support for up to 2 physical CPUs, 32 & 64 bit versions, 64 bit version supports up to 16GB RAM, Support for tablet PCs and MultiTouch controls, Display personalization, Desktop enhancements, Windows Media Center capabilities, Creation and use of HomeGroups, Windows Mobility Center, Network printing, Internet Connection Sharing, Fast User Switching, Games.
Windows 7 Professional
All features of Home Premium plus: 64 bit version supports up to 192GB RAM, Multi-user fast switching, Remote Desktop hosting, Support for domain networking, Location aware printing, Dynamic disks, Encryption File System, Windows XP Mode with Windows Virtual PC, Volume Licensing.
Windows 7 Enterprise
All features of Professional plus: Multiple Language User Interface for companies spanning the globe, UNIX-based application support, BitLocker Drive Encryption, Enhancements to remote corporate data access.
Windows 7 Ultimate
Combines all features of Windows 7 home and business operating systems. Available in Retail and OEM versions.,
Windows 7 Starter
Reduced feature set and cost to make more attractive to buyers of computers with reduced hardware specifications (like a netbook). This version does NOT include: Aero Glass interface, Support for multiple monitors, DVD playback, Ability to join a corporate domain, Ability to create a HomeGroup network, Ability to personalize the display background, colour scheme, Windows Media Center and media streaming, Windows XP Mode with Windows Virtual PC, 64-bit version, Support for more than two physical CPUs.
Windows 7 Home Basic
Designed for emerging markets that require a low-cost operating system. Builds on Windows 7 Starter, and adds more functionality like: Partial Aero functionalit, multiple monitor support, Windows Mobility Center, network printing, Internet connection sharing, 64 bit version with 8GB maximum RAM. Does not operate if it detects it is being run outside of the emerging markets it was meant to be sold in.
Windows 7 N & K Editions
The N releases are sold in countries that do not allow Microsoft to bundle Windows Media Player and other media software as part of the operating system. The K releases are sold only in South Korea and also have some features such as Windows Media Player removed as well.,
What are the features of the Remote Assistance included with Windows 7
Now a stand-alone application, included with all versions. A user can ask for help over the network using email, file transfer or the Easy Connect service.
What is a Gadget? Where can they be placed in Windows 7?
A gadget is a mini-application that will provide information, perform a useful task, or link to enhanced Web services. They can be placed anywhere on the Windows 7 desktop.
What is the Kernel?
The operating system software that runs in kernel mode on the computer's processor and which provides low-level intelligence for the operating system. Kernel Mode is an access mode for applications while they are running on the CPU that allows full access to all hardware devices and memory in the computer.,
What is User Mode?
An access mode for applications while they are running on the CPU that allows restricted access to all hardware devices and memory in the computer. This mode makes it difficult for the running application to corrupt and crash the operating system. System-level applications may need more access than is allowed and must use kernel mode instead.,
What is Windows Communication Foundation?
A part of the .NET Framework API that applications can use to communicate with each other. Enables applications to send messages to one another. Inteded for communication between Web services, peer-to-peer sharing features, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) support, and new core networking services.
Which protocols does Windows 7 support? Which is the most common and why?
TCP/IPv4, TCP/IPv6 IPSec,
Windows Hardware Quality Labs. A service provided by Microsoft to hardware developers and vendors to test their hardware with different versions of Windows. This testing only validates that a device works with Windows; it does not compare devices.,
A part of the .NET Framework API that protects the user's digital identities when communicating them across the network. Keeps track of a user's credentials for one or more security systems.,
Windows Driver Foundation
WDF. A standard for writing device drivers that interact with Windows 7. This standard replaces WDM and adds new features such as support for user mode device drivers.,
Windows Driver Model
WDM. An older standard for writing device drivers that interact with Windows. Device drivers that use this standard are still supported, but should be replaced with drivers that use the new WDF architecture.
Windows Image Format
WIM. A format to store images of applications and operating systems in image files. These images represent customized installations that can be distributed to other computers and installed using a scripted solution.,
Windows Presentation Foundation
Standard methods defined for applications drawing to the screen. Unifies the look and feel of the operating system. Developers can eXtensible Markup Language (XML) code. Improved standardized appearance.
Windows Workflow Foundation
Allows developers to build applications that follow a logical sequence of events. A programming model that allows developers to quickly build workflow-enabled aplications.,
A standard for formatting information in a self-describing way for transfer between different applications.,
Specialize configuration pass - The configuration pass that is performed after hardware has been detected. This is the most common configuration pass to apply settings. Also a sysprep extension.,
An installation when a network administrator must be present to answer configuration questions presented during Windows 7 installation.,
An installation that does not require any user input because all necessary configuration information is provided by an answer file.,
It allows you to install applications, add device drivers, run scripts, and test the validity of a Windows installation. This is a networked-enabled environment that does not require settings in Windows Welcome to be applied. There is also a Specialized pass for sysprep so you can find out if what you setup works - enables more logging than normally would have.
The subset of files from a distribution share that are required for a particular answer file. Is more compact than a distribution share.,
Deployment Image Servicing and Management
DISM. A command-line tool that can be used to service Windows 7 images offline or online.,
A server that holds installation files and images for the deployment of Windows 7 over a network. Can include distribution shares.,
A computer with two operating systems installed at the same time. The user typically selects an operating system to load during start up.,
How do you move desktop settings and applications from one desktop to another?
Image the HDD, User folder and Program Files, User State Migration Tool, Windows Easy Transfer.
How to set up Distribution Shares?
Micrsoft Deployment Toolkit, Windows System Image Manager.
A command-line tool for managing WIM images.,
The final configuration pass before installation is complete. This configuration pass is typically used in conjunction with Sysprep and ImageX.,
An installation manager that manages the addition of packages.,
A process putin place by Microsoft to reduce piracy. Unique informaiton about your computer is sent to Microsoft to ensure that the package of Windows 7 purchased is installed on only a single computer.,
A tool that is used to generalize Windows 7 and prepare it for imaging.,
Using scripts to manage the installation process cannot ensure consistency.
Windows Deployment Services. A server-based system for deploying desktop operating systems automatically over the network. PXE is used to connect the computers to WDS.,
What are Offline Updates?
An update applied to Windows 7 during installation before Windows 7 is started.
What is HAL?
Hardware Abstraction Layer. Part of the operating system that understands how to talk to the specific computer hardware on which the operating system is installed. This portion of the operating system runs at the lowest level of the application hierarchy in kernel mode.,
"What is ImageX and what tasks can be accomplished with it?
A command-line tool for managing WIM images. It can create, modify, and apply images from and to systems.
What is OfflineServicing?
The second configuration pass that is performed after the Windows image has been copied to the local hard drive. This configuration pass applies packages such as security updates and service packs before Windows 7 is started.,
What is the windowsPE configuration pass used for?
The first configuration pass performed during setup, which can be used to perform tasks such as disk partitioning and entering the product key.
What previous versions of Windows can be directly upgraded to Windows 7 and what are some of the requirements for such upgrades?
Windows Vista: 64-bit to 64-bit, 32-bit to 32-bit. You can't downgrade the product path; must go Home Premium to Home Premium, Enterprise to Enterprise, etc.
Windows Easy Transfer
A graphical wizard for migrating user fules and settings from Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Vista to a new Windows 7 computer.
A very limited version of Windows that can be used to perform recover tasks and install Windows 7.,
A tool that provides you with a single location where you can identify and address any security issues, maintenance requirements, and errors that have arisen.
A tool or utility in Control Panel that is focused on configuring a particular part of Windows 7.,
Backup and Restore Centre
A tool included in Windows 7 that alows you to set up backup regiments to back up files, restore files, create a system image, and create a system repair disk.
A feature in Windows 7 that can encrypt the operating system partition of a hard drive and protect system files from modification. Other partitions can also be encrypted.
Software that manages the communication between Windows 7 and a particular hardware component.,
Ease of Access
A collection of settings to make Windows 7 easire to use for those that have visual or hearing impairment.,
An MMC console that is used to view messages generated and logged by Windows 7, applications, and services.
The sleep method used by Windows 7 that combines teh S3 state and S4 state. When the computer moves to the S3 state, it also saves teh memory file required for the S4 state.
Microsoft Management Console. A graphical interface shell that provides a structured environment to build management utilities.,
A method for configuring time limits, controlling game playing, and allowing or blocking programs.
A system that ensures that a device driver is from a known publisher and that the driver has not been tampered with. With 64 bit versions of Windows, Drivers must be signed.
A Microsoft Management Console - a graphical interface that provides a structured environment to build management utilities.,
Taskbar and Start Menu
An applet that configures the behaviour of the taskbar and Start menu, including which toolbars are displayed on the taskbar.
The default logon method for Windows 7. This method presents icons representing each user. Also, the center that greets users after Windows 7 has been installed. Can be customized.
What can you do in the Folder Options Applet?
You can configure the behaviour of Windows Explorer, including whether file extensions are hidden for known file types, and whether hidden files are displayed.
What is in the Control Panel? Which Views exist?
A central location for Windows 7 management utilities. Most system settings are configured here. Category view is the default. Classic view displays all of the applets in one window.,
Which S states exist in Windows 7? How do you set them up?
S0 (Working), S3 (Sleep), S4 (Hibernated Sleep), S5 (Soft Off), G3 (Mechanical Off) You can set them up in the Control Panel>System and Security>Power Options>Change Plan Settings.
Displays a live thumbnail of each open Window as you use ALT-Tab to select a window. 3D Displays each open Window in a three-dimensional list and allows you to scroll through the windows using the mouse wheel.,
Windows Power Shell
An enhanced command-line interface that can be used to perform administrative tasks.,
A service that automatically downloads and installs service packs and security updates.
A primary partition that is indicated in the partition table as the partition to use when loading the rest of the operating system. If a basic disk has multiple primary partitions, only one primary partition can be marked as active at a time. The primary partition's boot sector is used to load the rest of the operating system.
An older, IBM-originated method used to organize disk space for x86 computers into primary, extended, and logical partitions. Basic disk technology is supported by many legacy oeprating systems and may be required in certain multi-boot configurations.
A method used to organize disk space into volumes. First introduced with Windows 2000, the dynamic disk method is seen as an improvement over basic disk technology. Not all operating systems support the dynamic disk method of organizing disk space. This may restrict multi-boot configurations. Dynamic disk technology supports simple, spanned, striped, mirrored, and RAID 5 volumes.
An MMC console snap-in used to administer hard disks in Windows 7.,
GUID Partition Table. A disk partitioning style that allows more partitions and advanced partition informaiton when compared to older MBR style disk partition scheme. Desktop computer only use GPT in specialized and limited cases due to its limited applicability.,
Multiple logical storage units, used to treat one physical disk drive as if it were multiple disks.
A reserved region of disk space on a basic disk that is capable of loading an operating system. The first sector of it is also known as a boot sector and stores the code for beginning the operating system load process from that primary partition.,
Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A method of combining multiple disk drives into a single logical drive for the purpose of attaining a larger drive size than possible on a single HDD (JBOD), increasing access speed (striping), or increasing HDD fault tolerance (Mirror, Distributed Parity).
A reserved area of space on a single dynamic disk. Can be formatted with a file system. The areas of space reserved for it do not have to be contiguous on the dynamic disk.,
A RAID 0 implementation using dynamic disks. Data is written in fixed block size in a sequential fashion to each disk. Used to improve disk Read and Write performance.,
Boot sector code
A term used to describe a special-purpose block of data on a disk or partition essential to the boot process of an x86 computer. The computer's BIOS will process it (when it processes the MBR) initially to find a partition to continue the boot process. Contains the code responsible for beginning the operating system load process from a partition or volume.,
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface. An open standard that builds on the proprietary EFI standard started by Intel to replace the legacy BIOS firmware design.,
A term used to refer to a region of disk space reserved to store file data. The term is used to generically refer to both dynamic disk volumes and basic disk partitions.,
What are the main characteristics of the Windows 7 DiskPart utility?
A powerful command-line utility for managing HDD partitions. Gives complete control over the creation, deletion and management of disk partitions. Can be scripted, requires very specific commands and syntax, maintenance and repair functions built within it.
Who can alter disk settings?
Users with Administrative privileges.,
A generic term used to refer to Intel and AMD CPU processors capable of 64 bit operations that are compatible with the Windows operating system.,
A generic term used to refer to computers based on Intel CPU processors. These CPUs include 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium and compatible processors from other companies such as AMD.
Access Control Entries. A specific entry in a file or folder's ACL that uniquely identifies a suer or group by its security identifier and the action it is allowed or denied to take on that file or folder.,
Access Control List. For those file systems that support ACLs for files and folders, such as NTFS, It is a property of every file and folder in that file system. It holds a collection (that is, list) of ACE items that explicitly defines what actions are allowed to be taken on the file or folder to which it is attached.
Read-Only, System, Hidden, Archive, Index, Encrypted, Compressed.
To compress a folder so that it's contents take up less space on the hard disk. Command-line utility for file compression.,
A system of tracking owners for file data within an NTFS-formatted aprtition or volume and the total disk space consumed by each owner. Lmits or warning can be established to restrict disk space usage.,
Encrypting File System. An encryption technology for individual files and folders that can be enabled by users.,
An older method of organizing files and folders in a hard disk partition. Files are stored in blocks of data that point to each other in a chain-like structure. The blocks that are used in the partition and the link from one to another are stored in a master table called the file allocation table.,
New Technology File System. A file system introduced with Windows NT. NTFS supports advanced features to add reliability, security, and flexibility that the file systems such as FAT and FAT32 do not have. Is the proffered file system for use with Windows 7.
Typically a three-character name at the end of a file name that is used to indicate the type of data contained in the file. Common ones include DOC for document, and EXE for executable programs.
Long File Name. Allows a maximum of 255 character file names, excluding the use of special operating system characters such as \ / : * ? "" < > |.
A snapshot of the file system that tracks changes to files and allows the restoration of previous file versions.,
Universal Disk Format. A third-party standard that defines how data is stored on removeable media such as DVD disks.,
What are Volume Mount Points and how are they set up?
An empty folder in an NTFS-formatted file system that is used to point to another FAT, FAT32, or NTFS partition. The mount point appears as just another folder in the file system.
What is the role of the file system?
A means to organize data, retrieve and update data, as well as manage the available space on the device(s) which contain it. Organizes data in an efficient manner and is tuned to the specific characteristics of the device. Some provide mechanisms to control access to the data and metadata. Insuring reliability is a major responsibility of a it.
What use are drive letters?
A letter of the alphabet assigned to a formatted partition or volume as a reference point for future access by the user or their applications.,
Which file systems exist that Windows 7 supports? When did each one appear?
Fat12, Fat16, Fat32, vFAT, exFAT, NTFS, CIFS, NFS, UDF, CDF
Fast user switching
Allows multiple users to ahve applications running at the same time. However, only one user can be using the console at a time.
How do you set up roaming profiles?
Find a share on network, copy NTUSER.DAT, then go back to account, add it to the profile and point to the location. Go back to the account and change the type of account it is (Roaming). Should make it a mandatory profile.
A user profile that is stored in a network location and is accessible from multiple computers. Roaming profiles move with users from computer to computer.,
How is the default profile configured?
Sysprep, Regedit (Click HKEY_USERS, File>Load Hive>C:\Users\Default, type ntuser.dat>typeDefaultUser)
The profile that is copied when new user profiles are created.,
A type of account stored only on the machine on which they are created.,
A standard process for creating names on corporate networks and computers. Creates a standard so that users and administrators can know what an object name is referring to.,
The file containing user-specific registry entries in a user profile.,
Used to set up the user roaming profile components that are not copied to the server.,
A network where all computers store their own security informaiton and share data. A network where all computers are equals.,
A network where a server controls security and and access to network resources such as files and printers.,
A key that is distributed publicly and used to decrypt files that you have encrypt.,
This group is used by special user accounts to perform file replication between computers. This group has no members by default.,
A troubleshooting startup mode that is stypically used when the regular startup mode for Windows 7 fails.,
Security Accounts Manager. The database used by Windows 7 to store local user and group information.,
Adds the requirement to press Ctrl+Alt+Del before logging on.,
Security Identifier (SID)
A coded value assigned to a user accoutn when it is first created to act as a unique identifier that is not duplicated for any other account. The security identifier is unique, regardless of what name is assigned to the user's account.
Security Set Identifier. A unique ID that identifies a wireless access point to the wireless networking clients that send data to it.,
User Access Control. A feature in Windows 7 that elevates user privileges only when required.,
What are some of the differences between the Administrator account and the initial account?
Administor is a member of the administrators group that cannot be removed, cannot be deleted, and is not visible on the welcome screen.
The account with administrative privileges created during the installation of Windows 7.,
The built-in account that is created during installation and which has full rights to the system. This account cannot be deleted or removed from the Administrators group.,
Which Built-in groups exist?
Administrators, Backup Operators, Cryptographic Operators, Distributed COM Users, Event Log Readers, Guests, IIS_IUSRS, Network Configuration Operators, Performance Log Users, Performance Monitor Users, Power Users, Remote Desktop Users, Replicator, Users.
Which types of profiles exist and why would you use them?
Public Profile, Default Profile, Roaming Profile, Mandatory Profile.
Why use User Accounts?
A new feature in Windows 7 that is used to define which programs are allowed to run. This is a replacement for the software restriction policies found in Windows XP and Windows Vista.,
What are the rule collections that exist for AppLocker?
executables, windows installer, scripts, DLLs.
The security process that records the occurence of specific operating system events in the Security log.,
BitLocker To Go
A new feature in Windows 7 that allows you to encrypt removable storage.,
Every object in Windows 7 has audit events related to it.
A one way encryption algorithm that creates a unique identifier that can be used to determine whether data has been changed.,
How is the Internet both useful and harmful for a technician?
Useful for getting troubleshooting information. Harmful because there is also bad information out there.,
A group of policies that affect the behaviour of the local computers, and the rights and privleges users have to perform various actions.
An action performed to logon to a computer (successfully or not). Can be logged to allow monitoring of access to the system.
Network Access Protection. A comptuer authorization system for networks that prevents unhealthy computers from accessing the network.,
Home, Work, Public. Enables and disables features depending on what zone it is in.
NTFS permissions can be easily circumvented when you have physical access to a computer.
If a person is able to install the HDD from another computer that does not recognize NTFS permissions, they can access all of the data on it, regardless of permission.
Use strong ones, can be enforced using local security policy.
Rights, that allow you to perform various system functions unless otherwise prohibited. This is as opposed to permissions where system actions cannot be performed unless granted premissions.
Protocol by which OS keeps track of running processes.,
Software Restriction Policies
Set rules stronger than previous versions of Windows. Can be restricted by path, hash, logorythm, name.
What is the most critical effect of malware?
The reduction of the level of security on a system, and a reduction of its performance.
What is a Path rule?
A way of restricting access to applications that specifies a specific path by path.,
What is an Asymmetric encryption algorithm?
An encryption algorithm that uses two keys to encrypt and decrypt data. Data encrypted with one key is decrypted by the other key.,
What is meant by an Unhealthy computer?
A computer with outdated anti-virus & security patches.,
What is the most basic level of security in Windows 7?
Username & Password.,
A IEEE standard designed to enhance security of wireless networks by authenticating a user to a central authority.,
The first portion of an IP address that allows the identification of that address type and therefore purpose.,
A command-line utility that can be used to display and manage the ARP table, which maps IPv4 addresses to physical MAC addresses.
Establishes connection before data is sent and ensures that data was received successfully.
Connection (Network Connection)
The clients, services, and protocols that are configured for a network card.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. A professional society that promotes and nurtures the development of standards used in the application of electronic technology.,
A protocol that is used to secure and authenticate IP connections.,
32-bit addressing, with the bits divided into four octets. Each octet is represented by a binary value of between 0 and 255. The current standard.
128-bit addressing, with the bits divided into 8 groups (each group representing 2 octets) represented by hexadecimal values ranging from 0 to FFFF. Also includes more efficient headers, IPSec built in, more efficient routing.
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol. A protocol used to carry PPP packets through IP networks.,
Link Layer Topology Discovery Responder
The protocol responsible for responding to discovery requests from other computers.,
Network Address Translation. A system that allows multiple computers to share a single IP address when connecting to the Internet.,
Network Driver Interface Specification. An interface that supports communication between network protocols and network drivers.,
A command-line utility that can be used to display , change, add, and delete network configuration settings on a computer, including basic and advanced settings.
A setting that control how your computer views other computers on the network and advertises its presence on the network.,
Network Location Awareness
The ability for Windows 7 to detect when it is connected to a different network and perform actions based on that change (like turn off network discovery).,
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet. A protocol used to secure connections over most DSL lines.,
Established sets of rules governing communication. TCP/IP, FTP, HTTP, Telnet, UDP
Traditionally , a network device that moves packets from one network to another. The routers sold in retail stores are used to share an Internet connection by performing NAT.
A data table that is used by Windows 7 to select the next IP address data must be delivered to ultimately deliver data to a given target address.,
A system to tunnel IPv6 addressed packets over an Ipv4 network, even if NAT is used on the IPv4 network.
What are the basic components of Windows 7 that support networking?
What are some of the improvements found in IPv6?
Windows Internet Naming Service. A system used to resolve computer NetBIOS names to IP addresses.,
Allows the user to view the desktop, and turn all open windows transparent by pointing to end of the taskbar.
When the user clicks the top of a window and shakes the mouse, all other open windows are minimized.
Dragging a window to the top maximizes a window, and dragging a window to the left or right of the screen will size the window to take up the left or right of the screen.
A view of the control panel in which applets are grouped by a common theme.,
A new feature in Internet Explorer 8 that provides backward compatibility for Web sites and applications that were targeted for previous versions of Internet Explorer.,
Devices and Printers applet
Manages the printers on a local workstation.,
Graphics Device Interface. The format used for displaying screen content in pre-Windows Vista versions of Windows.,
A service that indexes files in specified locations to speed up search queries.,
An Internet Explorer 8 feature that prevents caching of Web content and logging of Web activity in Internet Explorer.,
Virtual folders in Windows Explroer that combine content from multiple locations to simplify file access.,
Printer Control Language. A common language used by printers to describe how a page is printed.,
Point and print
A system used by Windows to distribute printer drivers over the network when network printers are installed.,
An Internet Explorer feature that prevents most popup advertising from being displayed while you browse web sites.,
A common language used by printers to describe how a page is printed. Invented and developed by Adobe.,
Print Management snap-in
A new printer management tool in Windows 7 that allows you to manage local and remote printers.,
Printer Driver Store
A location in Windows 7 that caches printer drivers and is capable of storing multiple versions of a printer driver.,
A format for distributing content as articles. Internet Explroer 7 is capable of reading RSS feeds.,
An Internet Explorer 8 feature that warns you about Web sites known to install malicious software or usedin phishing attacks.,
A feature in Internet Explorer 8 that allows multiple Web sites to be open in the same window.,
Small pieces of content from a Web site that notify you in Internet Explorer 8 when there is an update to the web site.,
What are tags?
Additional metadata that can be added to the properties of a file.,
What is meant by metadata? How can you use it for greatest effect?
Information or properties for a file or other object. Windows 7 allows you to include tags as additional metadata for files.,
What is WPF and what does it do for printing?
Windows Presentation Foundation. It controlls how information is drawn to screen. XPS uses a subset of commands WPS uses in order to render the jobs. This allows documents to be rendered exactly as they appear on screen because no conversion to a different format is necessary.,
Where do you go in Windows 7 to add a printer?
Start>Devices & Printers>Add a Printer, or Start>Control Panel>Hardware and Sound>Devices & Printers>Add a Printer.
A new system to advertise the capabilities of a printer.,
An XML file that describes the settings for a print job.,
XML Paper Specification. A document format that describes how a page should be displayed. Similar to Adobe's PDF.,
Can save files that are created using Performance monitor and many databases can open it.,
An event that is triggered when a count value is above or below the specified threshold value.,
A set of performance indicators gathered when system performance is acceptable.,
Method of improving disk performance by storing frequently accessed data in faster areas (like RAM),
The performance indicators that can be recorded in Performance Monitor.,
Data Collector Sets
A grouping of counters that you can use to log system data and generate reports.,
The component that is used to automatically manage performance logs.,
Disk Bottlenecks—How to fix?
The number of times per second that the OS looks for informaiton in memory and finds that it is not there.,
A unique copy of the item, you can monitor all HDD together, or you can monitor them individually as instances.
Logical Disk counters
Performance indicators for logical disks (as opposed to physical disks),
Memory Bottlenecks—How to fix?
The process for collecting system performance data, analyzing system performance data, and implementing system performance improvements. Looking for and reducing the effects of performance bottlenecks.
Physical Disk Counters
Performance indicators for physical disks (as opposed to logical disks),
Process Identifier. A numbe that uniquely identifies a process running on a system.,
utility that allows you to break logs into smaller logs, or join smaller logs together.
What can you do to reduce the use of virtual memory?
You can add more physical memory to the computer, reduce the number of running applications, processes and services.
What is the role of Task Manager?
A utility that allows you to view overall system information and manipulate processes.,
What are Threads?
A piece of code that performs a specific single task. An application is written as one or more threads, each of which performs a specific task within the application. The thread is typically seen as a unit of work for the CPU to perform.
Which monitoring bottlenecks exist on a computer?
Hard Drive, Memory, CPU, Networking
Windows Experience Index
Scores that help you determine which applications your computer can run. Can be used to identify hardware bottlenecks limiting system performance.,
A feature of Windows 7 that tracks application utilization and ensures that the most commonly used programs are kept in physical memory rather than being swapped out to disk.,
Defines multiple Application Program Interfaces that developers use as the programming foundation for their applications. Feature sets include Windows Presentation Foundation, Windows Communication Foundation, Windows Workflow Foundation, Windows CardSpace.
Component Object Model. A generalized method used by some applications to cross-link to and access each other. This is a broader method than OLE.,
Support systems designed for specific types of applications, such as Win32 applications. The environment hides the details of how the application must communicate with lower-level operating system components such as the Executive services. Environment subsystems operate on a user-mode basis but have awareness of kernel mode services hosted through Executive Services.
Hardware Abstraction Layer. Part of the operating system that understands how to talk to the specific computer hardware on which the operating system is installed. This portion of the operating system runs at the lowest level of the aplication hierarchy in kernel mode.,
A discrete body of registry keys and values stored in files as part of the operating system.,
How is the registry organized?
Hives, & Keys & Sub-Keys
How do you back up the Registry?
Through Regedit.exe, or system state.
Object Linking and Embedding. A method used by some applications to cross-link to each other.,
A GUI for viewing, editing, and backing up the system registry.
A command-line utility for viewing, editing, and backing up the system registry.
A group of fixes for applications applied by the Application Compatibility Toolkit.,
A method where data and parameters passed from 16-bit software to 32-bit software is translated in a bidirectional manner.,
User mode VS Kernel Mode
Virtual DOS Machine. A Win32 aplication that emulates a DOS environment for use by DOS and Win16 applications.,
What are the Executive Services?
A collection of kernel model support modules to manage low-level duties in the operating system such a scheduling processes, amanging memory, amanging virtual environments, and running core kernel programming.
Application designed to run in a Windows 16-bit instruction environment.,
Windows on Windows. For running 32-bit & 16-bit windows apps on modern computers through a process called Thunking.,
File Extension indicating a Virtual PC virtual hard drive. Disk space that stores files and folders in a formatted file system. The disk space is not an actual physical device; it is actually stored in a single file. That file will ahve the extension .vhd. Once the vhd file is created it can be attached, or opened for use.
eXtensible Markup Language. ,
One of the most commonly used Administrative tools. This MMC console contains the snap-ins to manage most Windows 7 components.,
An MMC snap-in that is used to mange hardware components adn their device drivers.,
DirectX Diagnostic Testing
dxdiag.exe. The tool can report the current state of the computer configuration and the installed support for DirectX sound, video, and input devices. The drivers reported in the tools should be production-class drivers that are signed with Microsoft digital signatures. The tool will report any problems discovered but will not automatically repair them.
A MMC console snap-in used to administer hard disks in Windows 7.,
An MMC console that is used to view messages generated and logged by Windows 7, applications, and services.
Help and Support
The help system built into windows to help you trouble shoot the operating system and programs.,
In Windows 7 how does the user get at the services?
Services Console, Task Manager. All users/user mode application in general have to go through kernel mode to get access to them. They do not get direct access to them.
Local Users and Groups
An MMC snap-in that is used to manage users and groups.,
Problem Steps Recorder
A new tool included in Windows 7 that allows users to record the exact steps required to reproduce a problem. The recorded steps can then be forwarded to help desk staff for analysis.,
services.msc A console that allows you to start/stop and view the services on the system.,
A windows application that runs in the background without user interaction. Provides functionality to remote cients over the network.,
Startup Repair Tool
A tool provided in Windows 7 to help users determine why their computer failed and what they can do to repair it.,
A recovery option that restores the operating system to a previously saved state by reversing changes to Windows system files, the registry, and newly installed software.
A utility that allows you to schedule tasks to run at a particular time or based on specific events occuring.,
What information can you retrieve from the System Information Tool?
Displays information about the system in a hierarchal tree format. Provides information about hardware resources, Components, and the Software Environment.
What is Safe Mode?
A troubleshooting startup mode that is typically used when the regular startup mode for Windows 7 fails. It doesn not load non-essential services, and only loads basic versions of drivers.
What are the primary tools used to diagnose and repair Windows 7?
Windows RE, Advanced Boot options menu, driver rollback, system restore.
When data is lostwhat is the only way to recover it?
From a backup.,
Windows Complete PC Restore
Restores system files and settings to the point just after OS installation.,
Windows Recovery Environment. A command-line environment that can be loaded from the Windows Setup DVD to perform recovery operations.,
Windows Management Instrumentation. A standard for accessing operating system operational status and configuration controls through remote management utilities.,
Active Directory naming scheme.
A scheme used when naming Active Directory objects. Names end up looking similar to DNS names.,
A directory of network information about users, computers, and applications that links multiple domains together.
The Active Directory partition that holds general information about the Active Directory forest and application configuration information. It is replicated to all domain controllers in the Active Directory forest.,
Logical groupings, administrative unit, used in Active Directory networking.
Forest Root Domain
The first domain created in an Active Directory forest.,
Multiple Active Directory trees with automatic trust relationships between them.,
Global Catalogue Server
A domain controller that holds a subset of the informaiton in all domain partitions for the entire Active Directory forest.,
Group Policy Object. A collection of Group Policy settings that can be applied to client computers.,
How often is group policy downloaded?
When someone logs on and every 5 minutes(domain) 90 minutes (user) after.,
Microsoft Deployment Toolkit
A set of best practices, scripts, and tools to help automate the deployment of Windows operating systems.
A replication system where updates can be performed on any server and are replicated to all other services.,
Network Access Protection. A computer authorization system for networks that prevents unhealthy computers form accessing the network.,
Preeboot eXecution Environment. A standard used by network cards to boot directly to the network and download an operating system.
User State Migration Tool. A set of scriptable command-line utilities that are used to migrate user settings and files from a source computer to a destination computer. Scanstate copies files from local computer to server; Loadstate applies files from server to local computer.
Windows Deployment Services. A server-based system for deploying desktop operating systems automatically over the network. PXE is used to connect the computers to WDS.,
What is meant by the term Scope when talking about migrations?
The groups that are upgraded at one time, within a larger upgrading scheme. What is the upgrading trying to accomplish, and then get goals from that.
Why is a properly configured DNS essential for Active Directory
Required for the components of Active Directory to communicate with each other , slow logon, replication doesn't happen. If not configured improperly, group policies are not applied properly.
A Windows Server aplication that is used to control the process of downloading and applying updates to Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7 clients.
Routines used by servers to establish the identity of a remote client attempting to connect and communicate with the server.,
Digital information that describes the identity of a user or computer. A user or computer can inspect the certificate and decide if its validity can be trusted. Certificates are issued by special servers called Certification Authorities (CA). If a user or computer trusts a CA, then they typically trust the certificates issued by the CA.
For the remote access utility, sets up a log for dialing connections.
A replacement for VPN access to corporate intranet data sources and applications utilizing bidirectional IPv6 communication with a specialized DirectAccess server. Workstations and users connect separately, allowing corporate IT administrators to manage both.
Extensible Authentication Protocol. A modular standard for defining authentication protocols that can be used to validate a computer or user. A product developer can introduce a custom authentication protocol for their product if it is not already included with Windows 7. EAP is available as an authentication standard with dial-up, VPN, and wireless connections.
Explain Remote Access
A system where clients are able to remotely connect to a network and access resources as though the remote client is connected directly to the network.,
Integrated Service Digital Network. A direct, digital dial-up connection to a PSTN that operates at 64 KB per channel over regular twisted-pair cable between a subscriber and the PSTN office.
Password Authentication Protocol. A simple authentication method that establishes the identity of a remote client with the authentication password sent in the data stream between the client and server. This presents a security risk and therefore this authentication protocol is discouraged unless the risk from communication eavesdropping is considered low.,
Point-to-Point Protocol. A network-layer transport protocol that manages connectivity over serial or modem lines. PPP can negotiate any transport protocol used by both systems involved in the link and can automatically assign TCP/IP settings.,
Public Switched Telephone Network. Provides a connection to subscribers for dial-up devices such as analog or ISDN modems. Originally developed to connect telephones and allow people to make analog phone calls.,
User generates an invitation, and sends the invitation to the expert. The expert can view the user's desktop and take control of it if the user permits.
A system where clients are able to remotely connect to a server to run applications and access data. Application and files are accessed at the server and only screen drawing commands are sent back to the client.,
Routing and Remote Access. A service installed and configured on Windows Server 2003 to allow remote clients and networks to connect to network services local to the server. Must be configured to support VPN connections, dial-up connections, and routed IP traffic from routers.
Sets up the behaviour of the dial-up connection. Allows you to set up security or callback.,
Pre PPP, Fast, no overhead, sends all data as clear text. Obsolete, not secure.
Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol. A protocol that allows secure communications between a VPN client and server using the SSL based encryption methods of HTTPS. Connection not likely to be stopped by a firewall because the HTTPS protocol is not commonly blocked.,
What are the good and bad features of CHAP?
Doesn't authenticate the server, only authenticates the user. Challenges the computer to confirm that it is the same computer. Fast, compressed, and encrypted.
What are the minimum requirements of Windows 7?
x86 - !GHz Processor 1GB Ram, 16GB HDD. x64 - 1GHz Processor 2GB Ram, 20 GB HDD. Both require DirectX 9 Graphics with WDDM 1.0 or higher.