AP US History Vocabulary

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Ch 3 Vocabulary for AP US History

Mayflower Compact

This document was not a constitution; was a simple agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon; was signed by 41 adult males, 11 of them with the exalted rank of mister though not by the servants and two seamen; was a promising step toward genuine self-government; , a formal document, written in 1620, that provided law and order to the Plymouth colony

Predestination

theory set up by John Calvin saying that God knew who was going to heaven and who was going to hell; since the 1st moment of creation, some souls-elect-had been destined for eternal bliss and others for eternal torment; good works could not save those whom predestination had marked for the infernal fires

Visible Saints

Those who sought the signs of conversion or the receipt of God's free gift of saving grace; Conversion was thought to be an intense personal experience in which God revealed to the elect their heavenly destiny; thereafter they were expected to lead "sanctified" lives, demonstrating by their holy behavior that they were among the visible saints

Separatists

Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were; , wanted to separate from the Church of England because of its corruption

Navigation Laws

In the 1660's England restricted the colonies; They couldn't trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England., Series of laws passed, beginning in 1651, to regulate colonial shipping; the acts provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports, and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England.

Quakers

A group arose in England in the mid-1600s, were called Quakers; name derived from when they supposedly quaked when under deep religious emotion; were originally known as the Religious Society of Friends;
Quakers were offensive to authorities both religious and civil; refused to support the established Church of England w/ taxes; built simple meetinghouses without a paid clergy; believed were all children in the sight of God; addressed people with thee's and thou's; would take no oaths because Jesus had condemned "Swear not at all"
Abhorred strife and warfare and refused military service; were a simple devoted democratic people

William Bradford

The cultured William Bradford a self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch...nerd. He was chosen governor 30x's in the annual elections; among his major worries was his fear that independent non Puritan settlers on their particular might corrupt his godly experiment in the wilderness, A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, Between 1621-1657, he developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

Protestant Reformation

This disrupted England in midcentury after king henry VIII broke w/ the roman catholic church in the 1530s launching the English Protestant Reformation; , This was begun by Martin Luther in 1517, it attacked the beliefs of Catholicism.; , root word -protest. The reformation is dated from the day Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the church in Wittenberg, Germany, protesting abuses within the Catholic Church. These were a call to the Catholic Church to reform itself. The results were that the Roman Catholic Church began to splinter apart with the formation of Protestant Churches, each its own variation of the Roman Catholic Church. The era for this division is called the Protestant Reformation - 1517-1603.

Royal Charter

A document given to the founders of a colony by the monarch that allows for special privileges and establishes a general relationship of one of three types: (1) Royal- direct rule of colony by monarch, (2) Corporate- Colony is run by a joint-stock company, (3) Proprietary- colony is under rule of someone chosen by the monarch. Royal Charters guaranteed that colonists would have "rights as all Englishmen".

John Winthrop

Was a well-to-do pillar of English society who became the colony's 1st governor; a successfuly attorney and manor lord in england, winthrop eagerly accepted the offer to become governor of teh Massachusetts Bay Colony believing that he had a calling from God to lead the new religious experiment; he served as governor or deputy governor for 19 yrs.; the resources and skills of talented settlers like him helped Massachusetts prosper, as fur trading, fishing, and shipbuilding blossomed into important industries especially fish and ships

Roger Williams

A threat to the Puritan leaders he was a popular Salem minister; was a young man w/ radical ideas and an unrestrained tongue; extreme separatist, he hounded his fellow clergymen to make a clean break with the corrupt Church of England; also challenged the legality of the Bay Colony's charter which he condemned for expropriating the land from the Indians without fair compensation, also went on to deny the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior; the Puritan;s patience exhausted by 1635, the Bay Colony authorities found Williams guilty of disseminating "newe and dangerous opinions" and ordered him banished; was allowed to stay for several months because of illness but kept on with his criticisms ; the magistrates fearing that he might rise a rival colony of malcontents made plans to exile him; but williams outsmarted them escaping to rhode island helped by indians; he established there freedom of religion even for Jews and Catholics, demanded no oaths regarding religious beliefs; no compulsatory attendance at worship and no taxes to support church; was begun as a squatter colony in 1636 but was later granted a charter from parliament in 1644

West India Company

Also much less powerful was the Dutch West India Company; maintained profit in the Caribbean; was less interested in trading than in raiding; one time it captured in 1628 a fleet of Spanish treasure ships w/ loot of $15 million; put outposts in Africa and sugar industry in Brazil
New Netherland in the Hudson River was planted in 1623-1624; put by the Dutch West India Company for quick profit of trade; best purchase from company was to buy Manhattan Island from the Indians for worthless trinkets
New Amsterdam later New York City was a company town; run by and for the Dutch company in interests of the stockholders; investors had no tolerance for religious toleration, free speech, or democratic practices, governors appointed were usually harsh; religious dissenters who opposed the Dutch Reformed Church were regarded w/ suspicion; for a while abused Quakers

Scots Irish

A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.

Fundamental Orders

In 1639 the settlers of the new Connecticut River colony drafted in open meeting a document known as the Fundamental Orders; it was in effect a modern constitution, which established a regime democratically controlled by the substantial citizens; essential features of the fundamental orders were later borrowed by Connecticut for its colonial charter and ultimately for its state constitution

Massachusetts Bay Colony

A group of non-separatist Puritans who were seeking protection for their freedom of religion, ended up securing a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company. The Massachusetts Bay enterprise was immediately successful. Eleven vessels carrying an estimated 1000 immigrants started the colony off in a larger scale than any other. Waves of Puritans were coming to Massachusetts Bay Colony in the following decade because of the turmoil in England.; in 1629 they got charter

King Philip's War

Massasoit's son forged a pan-Indian alliance against the swiftly spreading English settlements; he mounted a series of coordinated assaults on English villages throughout New England; Frontier settlements were especially hard hit, and refugees fell back toward the relative safety of Boston; when the war was over, 52 Puritan towns had been attacked, and 12 destroyed entirely; hundreds of colonists and many more Indians lay dead; his wife and son were sold into slavery; he was captured, beheaded, and drawn and quartered; his head was carried on a pike back to Plymouth, where it was mounted on grisly display for years, in 1675

New England Confederation

New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.; each member colony regardless of size wielded 2 votes an arrangement highly displeasing for the most popolous colony, Massachusetts Bay; was an exclusive Puritan club; consisted of the 2 Massach. colonies the Bay colony and Plymouth; and the 2 connecticut colonies of New Haven and the scattered valley settlements;

Dominion of New England

Created by royal authority, imposed from London. Embracing at first all New England, it was expanded 2 years laer to include New York and East and West Jersey. The dominion also aimed at bolsteing colonial defense in the event of was with the Indians. It was designed to promote urgently needed efficiency in the administration of the english Navigation Laws. They sought to stitch Enlgland's overseas possessions more tightly to the motherland by throttling American trade with countries not ruled by the English crown. Like colonial peoples everywhere, the Americans chafed at such confinements and smuggling became an increasingly common and honorable occupation. At the head of the dominion was Sir Edmund Andros.;, 1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

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