PSYC 2000 Lesson 7

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retrieve sticks and balls

you would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to

generalization

toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. this best illustrates

chunking

the organization of information into meaningful units

observational learning

our ability to learn by witnessing and imitating the behavior of others

generalization

after learning to fear a white rat, little albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. this best illustrates the process of

secondary

a stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with another reinforcer is called a ___ reinforcer

unconditioned response

shivering in cold weather is an example of

punisher

an aversive consequence that decreases the recurrence of the behavior that precedes it is a

misinformation effect

research on ____ indicates that events from the distant past are especially vulnerable to memory distortion

retrieval cues

words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past

observable behavior

john b. watson believed that psychology should be the science of

meanings

semantic encoding refers to the processing of

learning

according to the text, ___ enables us to adapt to our environment

successive approximations

an animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally, only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of

discrimination

the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called

biological predispositions

children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear guns. This best illustrates the impact of ___ on learning

cognitive processes

the predictability rather than the frequency of CS-UCS associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ___ in conditioning

new memories

epinephrine, a physically and emotionally arousing hormone, is likely to facilitate the formation of

spacing effect

kathy performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material fifteen minutes every day for eight days than if she crams for two hours the night before the test. this best illustrates what is known as the

extinction

kathleen developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. the fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone

fixed-ratio

schedule of reinforcement in which a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses have been made

misinformation effect

participants in an experiment were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other. many of these participants subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of the accident. this experiment best illustrated the

short-term

after finding his friends phone number, alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. in this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ___ memory

mood-congruent memory

the more depressed betty feels, the more easily she remembers many of the sad events in her life. this best illustrates

reinforcer

an event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows

encoding

the process of getting information into memory

overjustification effect

experiments have shown that children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy subsequently lost interest in the toy. these experiments provide an example of

rosy retrospection

elaine recalls last year's paris vacation more positively than she evaluated it when it occurred. this best illustrates

rapid; slows down

ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget novel information is initially ___ and subsequently ___

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

memory aid

a mnemonic device is a

biological predispositions

garcia and koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by

echoic

the hippocampus plays a critical role in ___ memory

secondary reinforcement; primary reinforcement

response-stimulus associations are to ___ as stimulus-stimulus associations are to ___

partial

resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ___ reinforcement

implicit

a retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ___ memory

cerebellum

studies of the conditioned eye-blink response in rabbits suggest that implicit memories are stored in the

short-term

"the magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ___ memory

recognition

memory measure of a person's identification of items previously learned

explicit

___ memory is AKA declarative memory

shaping

an operant conditioning procedure closer and closer approximations of a desired goal

reinforcer

in operant conditioning, any even that strengthens the behavior it follows

chunking

organizing items in manageable units

behaviorism

studies behavior without reference to mental processes

priming

activation of particular (often unconscious) associations in memory

UCR

unconditioned response

operant

behavior operates on the environment, producing consequences

conditioned

___ stimulus is an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with a UCS, comes to trigger a conditioned response

conditioned

___ response is a learned response to a previously neutral CS

implicit

___ memory is retention without conscious recollection

retrieval

getting information out of memory storage

encoding

processing of information into memory

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