Unit 1 (Agricultural development and early agricultural communities)

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Birth of civilizations. For AP WORLD HISTORY. It goes along with the AP WORLD HISTORY: AN ESSENTIAL COURSEBOOK. by Ethel Wood.

Cultural Diffusion

The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.

Demography

The study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation, and other statistics. It has special emphasis on spatial organization: location of places, people, and events, and the connections among places and landscapes.

Intervening obstacles

It forces individuals to halt and abort their migration plans due to some negative factor which can range from cultural to physical.

Marker events

Another name for critical events that are key events in a life.

Migrations

Movements of a people from one region to another.

The Myth of Continents

Book. "our tendency to let a continental framework structure our perceptions of the human community... Each continent is accorded to its own history, and we locate its essential nature in opposition to that of other continents..."

Periodization

An act or instance of dividing a subject into historical eras for purposes of analysis and study

Perspective

One way of looking at things

Push and pull factors

Things that attract people to the area and things that cause people to stay away.

Agriculture

marker event. The deliberate tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber. Adopted little at a time to supplement needs of hunter gatherers.

Bipedalism

ability to walk on two feet. Earliest known bipedal creature= Ardepithecus ramidus.

Catal Huyuk

Early Neolithic community in present-day Turkey. The houses were joined together as a barricade and so the "city" was protected. Relied on trade to supplement agricultural base. The organization and lifestyles of the people foreshadowed the development of great cities and other civilizations.

Division of Labor

Men= hunters; women= gatherers. Most talented at making tools could do that, and those who could plow would do that. (specialization) In this way, all work could be done more efficiently.

Horticulture

Used only hand tools (hoes and digging sticks) to plant seeds and cultivate crops. Earlier than agriculture.

Independent invention

No cultural diffusion involved. Agriculture was ----- ------- by China, India, the Andes Mtns.

Jericho

On Jordan River. Round houses of mud and brick. The foundation was surrounded by a ditch and a 12 foot high wall. Relied upon trade to supplement their agricultural base.

Lucy

Discovered in 1974. Australopithecus afarensis. Bipedal- only for small distances. Extinct.

Examples of Marker Events

Neolithic discovery of fire. Invention of agriculture. First law code. Mandate of Heaven. Sumerian writing (cuneiform).

Neolithic craft industries

there were three: pottery, metallurgy, and textile production. Pottery was a medium artistic expression as well as a source for utentils and materials, metallurgy included copper which was workable for tools, and textile production was threaded or woven fabric done by women which became and important enterprise.

Neolithic Revolution

Transition to agriculture. Important changes include: People settled to live near crops and formed little villages. Division of Labor. Social Inequality (families passed land down to kids and made some families distinguished and some not). Gender Inequality (women lost status because men were stronger). Importance of surplus (food supplies became more reliable). Religion (polytheism.

Paleolithic Age

(old stone age) At this time, humans inhabited continents except Antarctica. (homo sapiens)

Pastoralism

A nomadic agricultural lifestyle based on herding domesticated animals; tended to produce independent people capable of challenging sedentary agricultural societies.

Polytheism

believing in more than one god.

Primary sources

Original evidence from the time period. Before writing was invented, these included: pottery, artifacts, skeletal remains.

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