PAX Human Anatomy & Physiology: Respiration

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terms to be defined; respiration

nasal cavites

air enters into the respiratory system through here, which lead to the pharynx

larynx

voice box

bronchi

two branches that branch off of the windpipe leading to the lungs

bronchioles

thinner and thinner branching of tubes inside each lung

alveolus

plural: alveoli; thin and permeable air sacs found at the end of the bronchioles; functional units of the lung

breathing

the process by which air is moved into and out of the lungs; this involves the muscular movement of the diaphragm, and of the rib cage, which raises and lowers the pressure in the chest cavity; lowering pressure in the chest forces outside air into the lungs, and increasing pressure forces exhaled air out of the lungs

exhaled air

has a higher concentration of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water than inhaled air

rate of breathing

controlled by the nervous system, in response to CO₂ levels in the blood

cellular respiration

the process by which we get energy from the food that we eat; can be aerobic or anaerobic

aerobic respiration

occurs when oxygen is present, and it is the opposite process to that of photosynthesis; during photosynthesis, a plant uses energy to convert water and carbon dioxide to glucose; in this type of respiration, we use glucose, at a cellular level, to obtain energy; a very efficient process, begins in the cytoplasm of the cell and ends in the mitochondria, where the energy from glucose is stored in the form of ATP

anaerobic respiration

occurs if oxygen is not present; less efficient, and produces a lower amount of ATP

lactic acid

produced during anaerobic respiration; a cause of sore muscles after strenuous exercise

fermentation

anaerobic respiration in yeast; produces ethanol rather than lactic acid

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