What 7 functions do proteins play in the body?
1. Cell signaling compounds & receptors
2. Structure (collagen & muscle)
3. Fluid balance (plasma proteins)
4. Transport & storage proteins
6. Buffering compounds (plasma proteins)
What 7 functions do lipids have in the body?
1. Energy during rest (30-70% of energy)
2. Energy during low intensity exercise
3. Energy storage
4. Cell integrity
5. Food texture & flavor
7. Nutrient transport for fat soluble vitamins A,D,E, & K
What are the abnormal values for fasting blood glucose?
1. Hypoglycemic - <70 mg/dL
2. Prediabetic - 100-125 mg/dL
3. Diabetic - >125 mg/dL
What does the body do when it detects high levels of blood glucose?
1. Releases insulin from Beta cells of pancreas.
2. Insulin helps shuttle glucose into muscles & adipose via production of Glut4
3. This restores the normal level of blood glucose
What does the body do when it detects low levels of blood glucose?
1. Alpha cells of pancreas release glucagon.
2. Glucagon causes breakdown of glycogen to glucose, stimulates glucocorticoids which inhabit cell uptake of glucose, & stimulates gluconeogenesis
3. Blood glucose is returned to normal
What is the difference between type 1 & type 2 diabetes?
1. Type 1 is an autoimmune disorder with insulin dependence, & requires insulin injections
2. Type 2 is the result of a poor diet & sedentary lifestyle. It is insulin independent & can be treated with weight loss & eating healthy
What are the complications of uncontrolled diabetes?
1. Cardio Vascular Disease
2. Kidney failure
4. Nerve damage
Based upon chain length, how are lipids classified?
1. Short chain - 4-6 carbons long
2. Medium chain - 8-12 carbons long
3. Long chain - 14-24 carbons long
Based upon saturation, how are lipids classified?
1. Saturated (SFA) - no double bonds (fats)
2. Monounsaturated (MUFA) - 1 double bond (oils)
3. Polyunsaturated (PUFA) - >1 double bond (oils)
What do you look on an ingredient list at to signify trans fat?
1. Anything that says partially hydrogenated
What are the bioactive essential fatty acids?
1. Omega-6 which include Linoleic acid, Gamma-Linolenic acid, Eicosatrienoic acid, & Arachidonic acid
2. Omega-3 which include Alpha-Linolenic acid, Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), & Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
What does PDCAAS stand for & what is it used for?
1. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score
2. Used to evaluate protein quality
What constitutes an incomplete protein?
1. Foods that do not contain all essential amino acids
2. Ex: Corn, Wheat, Rice, Legumes
What constitutes a complete protein?
1. Foods that contain all essential amino acids.
2. Ex: animal proteins
What is Marasmus & what are some of its symptoms?
1. Protein energy malnutrition
2. Skin & bone appearance, depressed metabolism, stunted brain development, anemia, weakened immune system, & fluid electrolyte imbalance
What is Kwashiorkor & what are some of its symptoms?
1. Protein malnutrition
2. Stomach distension, retarded growth & development, fatty liver, loss of appetite, skin pigmentation changes, & dry brittle hair
When should kids be introduced to the Big 8 food allergens?
1. Eggs, Wheat, Soy, Shellfish, & Fish - after 6 months
2. Milk - after 12 months
3. Nuts & Peanuts - after they have teeth
How would you properly diagnose a food allergy?
1. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge
- Possible food allergen in beverage or pill form
- Placebo in beverage of pill form
- Wait for reaction in clinic
- DO NOT used for foods that may cause anaphylactic shock
What foods comprise a semivegetarian diet?
1. Vegetables, grains, nuts, fruits, legumes, sometimes seafood, poultry, eggs, & dairy
What foods comprise a Lacto-ovo-vegetarian?
1. Vegetables, grains, nuts, fruits, legumes, dairy, & eggs
What foods comprise a fruititarian diet?
1. Raw or dried fruits, seeds, nuts, honey, & vegetable oil
In the fed state, what happens to carbs upon consumption?
1. 50% of glucose is taken up by the liver & turned into glut-6-phosphate for glycogen storage.
2. Insulin is released from the pancreas & stimulates glycolysis & glycogenesis in the liver & muscles.
3. With excess glucose, lipogenesis is elevated in the liver & adipose tissue
What are chylomicrons?
1. Contains mostly triglycerides
2. Travel through the lymphatic system to thoracic duct
3. Eventually transported to adipocytes
What is the copper dependent enzyme used to pick up free cholesterol?
1. Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT)
How does free cholesterol regulate cellular cholesterol concentrations?
1. Inhibition of the rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis (HMG CoA reductase)
2. Decreases LDL receptor synthesis
3. Promotes cholesterol storage as cholesterol ester
Where does the liver get lipids from?
1. Chylomicron remnants
2. Uptake of other lipoproteins (HDL & LDL)
3. Circulating fatty acids
4. Endogenous lipid synthesis in the liver
What is happening to macronutrient use in the post absorptive state?
1. Liver glycogen is depleted during an overnight fast by glucagon & epinephrine
2. Muscle glycogen can provide glucose for muscle it is stored in
3. Glucose is made from lactate (from RBC) & alanine (from muscle) in the liver through gluconeogenesis
What is happening to macronutrient use in the fasted state?
1. Liver glycogen is depleted within 24 hours by glucagon & epinephrin
2. Glucose is made from glycogenic amino acids from muscles (mostly alanine & glutamine) in the liver & kidneys through gluconeogenesis
What should your plate look like proportionally when you sit down to eat?
1. Half fruits & vegetables
2. One fourth protein
3. One fourth starches
How would you calculate the calories from grams of macronutrients listed on a nutritional label?
Total fat X 9 cal/g
Total carbs X 4 cal/g
Total protein X 4 cal/g
How would you calculate the % calories from fat?
Total fat X 9 cal/g
---------------- X 100%
How would you calculate the % calories from carbohydrates?
Total carbs X 4 cal/g
------------------ X 100%
How would you calculate the % calories from proteins?
Total proteins X 4 cal/g
-------------------- X 100%
What does the nutrient content claim of "Free" mean when found on a nutrient label?
1. <0.5g/serving = total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, or sugar
2. <2mg/serving = cholesterol
3. <5mg/serving = sodium
What does the nutrient content claim of "Low" mean when found on a nutrient label?
1. <3g/serving & 30% calories from = total fat
2. <1g/serving & <15% calories from = saturated fat & trans fat
3. <20mg/serving = cholesterol
4. <140mg/serving = sodium
What does the nutrient content claim of "Reduced" mean when found on a nutrient label?
1. 25% less of Calories, Fat, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol, Sodium, & Sugars than reference product
What are the 3 structural forms of vitamin A discussed in class & what is each best for functionally?
1. Retinol - Reproduction & growth
2. Retinal - Vision
3. Retinoic Acid - Cell differentiation
What are examples of proformed vitamin A?
1. Plant products (orange, yellow & red color foods) - Carotenoids = antioxidants
How is the protein removed from a retinol ester in vitamin A digestion?
1. Pepsin in the stomach
2. Proteases in the small intestine
What happened to free retinol once it has had the protein and fatty acid removed?
1. It is incorporated into micelles
What are the 3 steps to vitamin A transport?
1. Retinol is bound by cellular-retinol binding protein (CRBP) in the enterocyte
2. Fatty acids are reesterified by lecithin: retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) reforming a retinol ester
3. Retinol esters & carotinoids are packaged into chylomicrons & sent throughout the lymph system
If retinol intake is low, what happens?
1. Carotenoids are metabolized to 2 retinals.
2. Retinal is either bound by CRBP, reduced to retinol, esterified via LRAT & incorporated into chylomicrons OR oxidized to retinoic acid & travels to the liver bound to albumin
What are the functions of vitamin A?
1. Important for rhodopsin production & vision in dim light
2. Cellular differentiation
3. Gene expression
6. Bone growth & breakdown
7. Immune system
What are the symptoms of vitamin A deficiency?
1. Vision problems - night blindness
2. Xerophthalmia - dry eyes from inadequate mucus production & bigot's spots
3. Depressed immune system
What are the symptoms of vitamin A toxicity?
1. Nausea, vomiting, headache, double vision, dizziness, dry & itchy skin (hyperkeratosis), alopecia, bone & muscle pain, bone fractures, & liver damage
What are the forms of vitamin D discussed in class?
1. Cholecalciferol - Vitamin D3, animal form
2. Ergocalciferol - Vitamin D2, plant form
How is vitamin D digested & absorbed?
1. Vitamin D consumed with food
2. Bile released into small intestine
3. 50% absorbed by passive diffusion in SI (mostly ileum)
4. 40% bound to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP)
5. 60% packed into chylomicrons
How is vitamin D transported?
1. Vitamin D3, Calcidiol, & Calcitriol are all transported by vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) in blood to tissues
What are the 6 functions of vitamin D?
1. Calcium homeostasis
2. Cell differentiation & growth
3. Lower blood pressure
4. Prevent autoimmune diseases
5. Immune activity
6. Insulin secretion
What are some symptoms of vitamin D deficiency?
1. Osteoporosis, osteomalasia, Rickets, Stress Fractures, & Low Back Pain
2. Rheumatoid arthritis, Multiple sclerosis, & Inflammatory bowel disease
5. Depression, Alzheimer's, Schizophrenia, & Anxiety
6. Solid cancers (prostate, colon, stomach, breast, liver, kidney, etc)
7. Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Metabolic syndrome
8. Respiratory tract infections
9. Loss f balance
What are the symptoms of vitamin D toxicity?
1. Bone demineralization
3. Nephrocalcinosis (renal failure)
How are vitamin E natural tocopherols digested, absorbed, & transported?
1. Bile released in SI
2. ~50% absorbed by passive diffusion in the SI (mostly jejunum)
3. 100% packed into chylomicrons
4. Sent to liver
5. Alpha tocopherol transport protein
6. incorporated in VLDL
How are vitamin E synthetic tocopherols & natural tocotrienols digested, absorbed, & transported?
1. ~50% absorbed by passive diffusion in the SI (mostly jejunum)
2. 100% packed into chylomicrons
3. Sent to liver
4. Alpha tocopherol transport protein
5. incorporated in VLDL
What are the functions of vitamin E?
2. Blood thinner
4. Decreases cancer risk
5. Lowers cholesterol
6. Prevents neurodegeneration
What are symptoms of vitamin E deficiency?
3. Peripheral neurpathy
4. Loss of coordination
What are symptoms of vitamin E toxicity?
4. Respiratory infections
5. Double vision
What are the types of vitamin K discussed in class?
1. Phylloquinone - majority, found in plants
2. Menaquinone - made by bacteria
How is vitamin K digested, absorbed, & transported?
Phylloquinone & menaquinone:
1. Consumed in diet
2. Bile released into SI
3. ~80% absorbed by passive diffusion in SI (mostly jejunum)
4. 100% packed into chylomicrons
5. Sent to liver
6. Incorporated into VLDL
What are the symptoms of vitamin K deficiency?
1. Increased bleeding
3. Can be fatal