Is the science and art of reasoning well.
The Law of Excluded Middle
Any statement is either true of false.
The Law of Identity
If a statement is true, then it is true.
The Law of Non-contradiction
A statement cannot be both true and false.
Deals with the proper modes of reasoning
Deals with operations of thinking that are indirectly related to reasoning.
Is reasoning with probability from examples or experience to general rules.
is reasoning with certainty from premises to conclusions.