PAX Physics: Electricity and Magnetism

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terms to be defined; electricity and magnetism

neutrons

particles that have no charge; neutral

protons

particles that have a positive charge

electrons

particles that have a negative charge

Coulomb's law

like charges repel each other, and unlike charges attract each other; Coulomb found that the electric force between two charges is proportional to the product of the two charges; if one charge is doubled, the electric force is doubled-if both charges are doubled, the electric force increases four times

magnetism

force of attraction; closely related to electricity

magnets

have a north and a south pole, each of which attracts its opposite and repels its similar pole

magnetic fields

exist whenever electric charges are moving

torque

results when the moving charges are in a wire that loops; this effect is the basis for electric motors

generator

a device that converts mechanical energy, such as water coming down a waterfall, into electric energy

electrical potential energy

can be compare to the gravitational force associated with an object's position; because of the force, the object has potential energy

potential difference

is the change in electrical potential energy

transformer

the device that changes the potential difference of electricity

voltage

another term for potential difference; is a measure of the electrical potential energy

voltmeter

is a device that measures the potential difference between two points in an electric current

current

electricity moving through a circuit

ampere

the unit used to measure electrical current

ammeter

a device that measures the current going through any specific point on the circuit

resistor

limits the way by which the ability to flow through a circuit; lowers voltage

series circuit

has all its resistors in a row so that all current must travel through all resistors

parallel circuit

all the resistors are arranged side by side, so that they are all at the same voltage

electrical power

equal to the voltage times the current; formula: power = voltage X current

watts

what power is expressed as; formula: watt = volts X amperes

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