A&P 2 Lab Practical: Labs 1,2 &4

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Does not include the identification of the heart of circulatory structures (lab 3).

Endocrine

The _____ system is ductless and hormones are secreted directly into the blood.

Blood

In the endocrine system, the hormones are secreted directly into the _____.

Hormones

The endocrine system coordinates activity in the body through the release of chemical messengers called _____.

True

True or False: hormones are carried through the blood to target cells in response to feedback control mechanisms.

Metabolism, growth and reproduction

Hormones are involved in the regulation of what 3 body functions?

Hypophysis

The pituitary gland is also known as the _____.

Pituitary (hypophysis)

Which gland is also known as the "master gland".

Hypothalamus

The pituitary gland is stimulated by the _____.

Infundibulum

The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk-like projection called the _____.

2

the pituitary gland has (#) primary lobes and a smaller third lobe.

False (3)

True or False: there are only 2 lobes in the pituitary gland

Adenohypophysis

The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.

Neurohypophysis

The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.\

Glandular

The adenohypophysis is composed of _____ tissue.

Nervous

The neurohypophysis is composed of _____ tissue.

6

The anterior pituitary gland is responsible for the secretion of (#) hormones.

Prolactin, GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH

List the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

Oxytocin and ADH

List the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.

Nervous impulse

The posterior pituitary gland is activated by the hypothalamus through _____.

Hormones

The anterior pituitary gland is activated by the hypothalamus through _____.

Pars

The third lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.

2

The thyroid gland has (#) lobes.

Isthmus

The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by a band of tissue known as the _____.

Follicular

The thyroid gland hormones T3 and T4 are produced by _____ cells.

Parafollicular

The hormone calcitonin is produced by _____ cells within the thyroid.

T3 and T4

Thyroid hormones _____ regulate body metabolism, growth and development, and are essential for nervous system maturation.

Calcitonin

This thyroid hormones helps to regulate blood calcium levels.

Parathyroid gland

These 4 small glands are located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.

Kidneys

The adrenal glands are located near the _____.

Suprarenal

The adrenal glands are also known as the _____.

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

The adrenal medulla produces which two hormones.

Adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex

The adrenal glands are separated into two parts called _____.

Adrenal medulla

this section of the adrenal gland is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

Adrenal cortex

This is a section of the adrenal gland responsible for producing more than 30 steroids essential for life.

Aldosterone

This steroid is produced by the adrenal cortex and regulates the concentration of mineral electrolytes and maintains blood volume and blood pressure by stimulating the kidneys to retain water.

Cortisol

This steroid affects glucose metabolism and maintains blood sugar within the normal range.

Pancreas

This organ functions both as an endocrine and exocrine gland.

Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets)

The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of the _____ which produce the hormones glucagon and insulin.

Glucagon and insulin

Which two hormones are produced by the pancreas.

Glucagon

_____ acts to increase blood sugar concentration.

Insulin

_____ decreases levels of glucose in the blood.

Pineal

The _____ gland is located near the back of the diencephalon and is tear shaped.

Melatonin

The pineal gland secretes _____ in response to light.

Pineal

the secretion of this glands hormones is light dependent and operates through information gain in the eyes.

Ovaries

These gonads produce estrogen and progesterone

Testes

These gonads produce testosterone.

Diuretics

Substances that promote urine production are known as _____

Hyperthyroidism

This is a condition resulting from the above normal secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hypothyroidism

This is a condition resulting from the below normal secretion of thyroid hormone.

Oxytocin

Birth hormone which stimulates the uterine muscles to contract during childbirth.

Corpus Albicans

If fertilization does not occur, the hormone-producing, collapsed ovarian follicle termed the corpus luteum will degenerate into the ______.

Connective

Blood is a type of _____ tissue.

True

True or False: the connective fibers in blood are only present during the clotting process.

Oxygen

The color of blood varies from bright scarlet to dull red depending on _____ levels.

5

Adults have approximately (#) liters of blood.

True

True or False: there are over 100 different substances suspended in blood including gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, antibodies, chemicals and ions.

Hemopoiesis

The formation of blood is known as _____.

Spleen, liver and lymph nodes

`Hemopoiesis occurs in the __________ of a fetus.

Red

After birth, hemopoiesis occurs in the _____ marrow of specific bones.

False (red only)

True or False: at birth an individual has both red and yellow bone marrow.

Fat

At birth, the red marrow of the long bones in an individual will turn yellow due to an accumulation of _____.

Flat bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae and pelvic bones

List the 5 places where red marrow is found in adults.

Plasma / formed elements

When a tube of whole blood is spun in a centrifuge the blood will separate in to _____ and ______.

Plasma

_____ is the fluid component of blood.

Formed elements

Blood cells are found in the _______ of blood.

Hematocrit

the percentage of RBCs in whole blood is known as _____.

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells are also known as _____.

Leukocytes

White Blood cells are also known as _____.

Thrombocytes

Platelets are also known as _____.

True

True or False: the average hematocrit for a male adult is 45%.

Erythrocytes and thrombocytes

These two types of blood cells perform their functions in the blood.

Leukocytes

This type of blood cell performs its functions in the connective tissue.

Nucleus

The characteristic biconcave appearance of the RBC is due to the lack of a _____.

True

True or False: the biconcave appearance of RBCs allows for a greater surface area for binding oxygen and carbon dioxide during the process of respiration.

False (cells are anucleate, do not reproduce and have a limited life span)

True or False: RBCs reproduce through mitosis.

100-120

RBCs have a life span of ___ to ____ days.

Spleen

Which organ destroys red blood cells?

Erythrocyte

This is the most prevalent type of blood cell.

True

True or False: Erythrocytes are relatively uniform in size.

Anemia

A pathology referring to the decrease in RBCs

True

True or False: Anemia reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.

Polycythemia

An increase in the number of RBCs being produces is known as _____.

Polycythemia

this disorder may be the result of cancer or prolonged exposure to high altitudes.

Polycythemia

In this disease, RBCs may appear lighter and may be nucleated indicating an immaturity of the cells.

Thrombocytes

small irregular shaped cell fragments that promote clotting when a blood vessel has been damaged.

True

True or False: Once bleeding has stopped and healing has begun, platelets contribute to dissolving the clot.

Leukocytes

these function as a defense system against pathogens or the presence of foreign material in the body.

False (nucleated)

True or False: Leukocytes are anucleated and have the ability to move in and out of blood vessels.

True

True or false: leukocytes are fewer in number than erythrocytes and more varied in size.

Granulocytes or Agranulocytes

List the 2 classifications of a leukocyte.

Agranulocytes

Leukocytes with no observable granules in the cytoplasm

Granulocytes

leukocytes with conspicuous granules in the cytoplasm.

Monocytes and lymphocytes

list the two types of agranulocytes.

Monocytes

these are the largest of the leukocytes and are nearly twice the size of erythrocytes.

4-8

Monocytes compose _____ percent of the leukocyte population.

Monocytes

These typically contain a kidney shaped nucleus surrounded by a large amount of cytoplasm.

Monocytes

These serve as long-term active phagocytes which increase dramatically during chronic infections.

True

True or False: lymphocytes are approximately the same size as RBCs.

Lymphocytes

The nucleus of this agranulocyte stains dark blue to purple and makes up most of the cell.

B or T

Lymphocytes are classified as ___ lymphocytes or ____ lymphocytes.

Lymphocytes

This agranulocyte presents with a very thin pale halo of cytoplasm around the nucleus.

Granulocytes

this type of WBC has lobed nuclei that consist of expanded nuclear regions connected by thin strands of nucleoplasm.

Neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils

List the 3 types of granulocytes.

Neutrophil

The most numerous of the leukocytes.

Neutrophil

These granulocytes have a multi-lobed nucleus consisting of 3-7 lobes.

True

True or False: neutrophils are phagocytes that increase exponentially during acute infections.

Neutrophils

This is a neutral loving granulocyte.

True

True or False: the granules in neutrophils stain so lightly they are generally indistinguishable.

Basophils

These are the granulocytes which are fewest in number.

40-70

neutrophils makeup ______ percent of WBCs

1

Basophils makeup _____ percent of WBCs

Basophils

These granulocytes have a large u or s shaped nucleus with two or more indentations that usually cannot be observed because the coarse granules stain so darkly.

Histamine

Basophil granules contain a vasodilator called ______which is discharged when antigens are exposed to inflammation.

Heparin

Basophils contain an anticoagulant known as _____.

Agglutination

The clumping together of RBCs is known as _____.

Bilirubin

Pigment excreted in the bile is called _____.

Hemoglobin

The red pigment responsible for the color of blood is _____.

Leukocytosis

An abnormal condition in which there is an overproduction of white blood cells.

Erythropoietin

Hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells is known as ____.

Hemostasis

The stoppage of bleeding from damaged blood vessels.

Thrombocyte

Blood platelet involved in the formation of a blood clot.

Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils

List the white blood cells in order of abundance.

Glycoproteins

Blood typing is based on the presence of specific _____ on the outer surface of the RBC plasma membrane.

Antigens

The glycoproteins which are present on the RBC membrane are known as _____ .

True

True or False: antigens are genetically determined.

Antibodies

In many cases antigens are accompanied by plasma proteins called _____ that react with RBCs having different antigens causing them to clump and eventually hemolyze.

False (only those with compatible blood)

True or False: most people can receive blood from any donor.

Type O

This blood type is known as the universal donor.

Type AB

This blood type is known as the universal acceptor

True

True or False: a person with type A blood has antibodies for type B blood, thus they can only accept blood from a Type O or Type A donor.

Rh

This is an additional antigen which determines whether a person has a positive or negative blood type.

Arteries

_____ always carry blood away from the heart

Veins

_____ always carry blood toward the heart.

Cardiac cycle

The _____ is equivalent to one complete heartbeat.

Blood pressure

_____ is a measure of ventricular contraction and relaxation.

Closed / open

When the heart is at complete relaxation the semilunar valves are _____ and the atrioventricular valves are _____.

Systole

The heart at work is known as _____ (when the ventricles contract)

Diastole

The heart at rest is known as _____.

120 mm Hg

Normal systolic pressure is _____

70

The average heart rate is _____ bpm.

.8 of a second

The average cardiac cycle length is ______.

Atrial contraction

The first .1 second of a cardiac cycle is _____

Ventricular contraction

______ takes up about .3 second of a cardiac cycle.

Ventricular relaxation

The last .4 seconds of a cardiac cycle is _____

The last phase

Which phase of the cardiac cycle gets cut short when the heart rate increases?

AV valves at the beginning of systole

The first sound of a heartbeat (Lubb) is associated with the closing of the _________.

Semilunar valves closing at the end of systole

The second sound of a heartbeat (dub) occurs with the _____________.

Pulse

The alternating surge of pressure in an artery that occurs with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.

Pulse rate

The number of beats per minute.

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