King of France (1754-1793). He was overthrown during the French Revolution. He helped America during the American Revolution. The resulting debt caused unrest among the people. He was captured by the revolutionaries in 1793. He attempted to escape but was captured and executed. He married Marie Antoinette.
(1755-1793) The daughter of Francis I of Austria, and wife of Louis XVI of France. She was unpopular due to her frivolous lifestyle and attempts at poltical control.
(1758-1794) French revolutionary leader directly responsible for the Reign of Terror. Leader of the Jacobian party. Eventually guillotined by other leaders of the party who feared for their own life.
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Virginian, patriot, general, and the first president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Wife of 2nd president John Adams and Mother of 6th president John Q Adams who was very vocal for women rights. Abigail's controversial views for women rights lead to later movements for future women equality.
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.
Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba
An overthrow of the established government by the people.
A state or government ruled over by a single person, such as a king or queen.
A form of government where the monarch's power is limited by a constitution.
France's Legislative body that met infrequently and was overall weak; Represented the different classes; convened for 175 years; all branches were equal
The Oath of the Tennis Court
Formed when the National Assembly was locked out of their hall. They went to the tennis court to swear an oath that they wouldn't disband until there was a new written constitution.
Significance: this demonstrates how the strong the union of the National Assembly was and how the lower class was beginning to revolt for more power in their country.
Paris prison. Served as a symbol of the oppression, and stormed by the workers in Paris on July 14, 1789. Considered the first act in the French Revolution.
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
The Reign of Terror
The period from 1793-1794 when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator. Thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed by the guillotine.
The XYZ affair
Situation in which diplomats were sent to France to discuss tensions during the French Revolution. Three French agents asked for over ten million dollars in tribute before they would begin diplomatic talks with America. When Americans heard the news, they were outraged. John Adams substituted the letters X, Y, and Z in place of the agents names. He also decided to strengthen the Navy to show France that America was a force to be reckoned.
Alienation and Sedition Acts
In reaction to the bitter criticism of the Federalists in their opposition to France, John Adams supported and passed this legislation. It allowed the President to banish or imprison foreigners with a single order (Alien). The Sedition Act made it illegal to criticize the government, President, or Congress. Many felt it violated their constituional rights.
A French art style and movement that originated as a reaction to the Baroque in the mid-eighteenth century, and continued into the middle of the nineteenth century. It sought to revive the ideals of ancient Greek and Roman art.
(1761-1834) An English Baptist missionary and a Reformed Baptist minister, known as the "father of modern missions". Carey was one of the founders of the Baptist Missionary Society. As a missionary in the Danish Colony, Serampore, India, he translated the bible into Bengali, Sanskrit, and numerous other languages and dialects.