Physical Science: Chapter 12 - Forms of Energy

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Motion, Forces, and Energy Energy and Tools Heat Light Sound

speed

the distance traveled in a certain amount of time

force

any push or pull that makes an object start moving, stop moving, speed up, slow down, or change direction

friction

a force between surfaces that slows objects down or stops them from moving

inertia

the tendency of an object to remain in motion or stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force

work

the use of a force to move an object a certain distance

energy

the ability to do work, either to make an object move or to change matter

simple machines

a machine with few moving parts, making it easier to do work; the six types of simple machines are the lever, pulley, wheel an axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw

load

the object being lifted or moved by a machine

effort force

the amount of force needed to move something

efficiency

the measure of how much useful work a machine puts out compared to the amount of work put into it

heat

the movement of thermal energy from warmer to cooler objects

conduction

the transfer of energy between two objects that are touching

convection

the transfer of energy by the flow of liquids or gases, such as water boiling in a pot or warm air rising in a room

radiation

the transfer of energy through space

fossil fuels

a substance such as coal or oil that was formed millions of years ago from the remains of plants and animals; these fuels are nonrenewable resources, and, when burned for energy, are a major source of pollution

wavelength

the distance from the top of one wave to the top of the next

spectrum

a range of light waves with different wavelengths

reflection

the bouncing of light waves off a surface

refraction

the bending of light as it passes from one transparent material into another

vibration

the back-and-forth motion of an object

sound wave

an area of bunched-up and spread-out air particles that moves outward in all directions from a vibrating object

frequency

the number of times a sound source vibrates in one second

pitch

the highness or lowness of a sound as determined by its frequency

amplitude

the energy in a sound wave

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