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The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin-parathormone.

true

The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is glucagon.

true

Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.

true

Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.

true

Parathyroid tissue is embedded in the Thyroid gland.

true

The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis.

true

The alpha cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin.

false

ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.

true

Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium.

true

The only known effect of prolactin in humans is to produce impotence in males.

false

All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis: ACTH, FSH, and LH.

true

Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.

false

Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.

true

All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.

true

In humans, melatonin may inhibit sexual maturation.

true

Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.

cortisol

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.

second messengers

Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

enzyme

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.

hormones

Growth hormone ________.

promotes long bone growth during the formative years

Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.

down-regulation

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.

hypophyseal portal system

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

Insulin, a small (51-amino-acid) protein, is synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas. This hormone is released ________.

when the body's glucose level rises

Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.

binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.

epinephrine

The major targets of growth hormone are ________.

bones and skeletal muscles

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.

targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released

Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?

epinephrine

Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?

Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.

Aldosterone ________.

functions to increase sodium reabsorption

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?

Calcium

Hormones secreted from the posterior pituitary gland are synthesized by the:

hypothalamus

The primary effect of calcitonin is to:

decrease blood calcium

The main target for ADH is the:

kidney

The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the flat bones of the skull.

true

The RBC "graveyard" is the liver.

false

Leukemia refers to cancerous conditions of white blood cells.

true

Hemoglobin is made up of the protein heme and the red pigment globin.

false

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport four molecules of oxygen.

true

A person with type B blood could receive blood from a person with either type B or O blood.

true

What is the average normal pH of blood?

7.4

Which blood type is called the universal donor?

O

Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?

maintenance of normal pH in body tissues

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

prevention of blood loss

As red blood cells age ________.

membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged

The most abundant plasma protein is ________.

albumin

When neither anti-A nor anti-B clots on a blood plate, the blood is type ________.

O

Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation.

Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.

monocytes

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.

pernicious anemia

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?

They are nucleated.

Platelets ________.

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

Select the correct statement regarding age-related blood disorders.

They include anemias and thromboembolic disorders.

When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?

if the father is Rh-

A person's ABO blood type is determined by antigens present on the:

erythrocytes

Formed elements that are biconcave discs about 7-8 microns in diameter are:

erythrocytes

Oxygen is transported by red blood cells by binding to:

the iron ion in the heme portion of hemoglobin

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