Kinetofragminphorea and Sporoozoea Parasites

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Navy Pmt Parisitology test 2

Malaria

Literally means "bad air" Either an acute chronic infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient(G6PD)

Persons lacking G6PD enzyme that protects the red blood cells (RBCs) from oxidative attack

Hemolysis

Destruction of RBCs

Tenesmus

Spasmodic contraction of anal sphincter with pain and desire to empty bowel, along with involuntary or ineffectual straining efforts

Hepatocytes

Liver cells

Duffy factor

Is on RBCs and is the receptor for P. vivax

Sickle cell anemia

Hereditary conditon characterized by arthralgia, acute abdominal pain, and sickle shaped erythrocytes

What is a medically important distinguishing characteristic of Kinetofragminophorea

Have cilla on a portion of the cell or entire cell

What is a medically important distinguishing characteristic of Sporozoea

Possess both and asexual phases during development

Trophozoite

Vegetative, active, motile feeding and reporductive stage of protozoans
-easily killed by an unfavorable environment

Cyst

inactive state brought on by a secretion that creates a resistant membrane

Oocyst

The encysted stage of a parasite

Micro and Macro gametes

The conjugation of male and female forms produces a zygote

Sporozoite

A spore formed after fertilization,elongated,nucleated cells formed by the divison

Bradyzoite

Slowly reproducing cystic stage of Sporozoan parasite

Tachyzoite

Rapid asexually reproducing stage found in tissue

Zoitocyst

Stage in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii

Schizont

A collection of divided parasites which release merozoites

Merozoite

Stage of the parasite that differentiates into male and female gamete

Zygote

The fertilized egg
-formed from the union of male and female gametes

Male and female gametocytes

The MALE and FEMALE sexual forms of some sporozoan parasites

What is another name for Balantidiasis

Balantidiosis or Balantidial dysentery

What is the infectious agent of Balantidiasis

Balantidium coli(balantidium means "little bag")

What is the largest human intestinal protozoan

Balantidiasis aka Balatidiosis or Balantidial dysentery

What is the reservoir for Balantidiasis

swine and possibly rats

What is the most important stage in the life cycle of Balantidiasis

Encystation occurs, and passes cysts through feces

What are some signs and symptoms of Balantidiasis

Diarrhea/Dysentery which may contain blood and mucus, abdominal colic, tenesmus, nausea and vomitting

What is the treatment for Balantidiasis

Metronidazole

What is the infectous agent of Cryptospordiosis

Cryptosporidium parvum

What is the most important mode of transmission of Cryptosporidium

Fecally contaminated water or food

What is the period of communicability of Cryptosporidiosis

Remain infectious in a moist environment for 2-6 months or longer

How do you diagnosis Cryptosporidiosis

Identify oocysts in fecal smears

What is the infectious agent of Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasma gondii

What is the definitive host for Toxoplasmosis

Cat

What is the accidental host for Toxoplasmosis

Humans

What is an important mode of transmission for Toxoplasmosis

Ingest raw or undercooked meat

What is an important part of the life cycle of Toxoplasmosis in a cat

The host is infected by digesting Oocysts in dirt

What is the incubation period of Toxoplasmosis

From cat feces 5-20 days

What are some signs and symptoms of Toxoplasmosis

Resembles mononucleosis lymphadenopathy with lymphocytosis
-in a pregnant female early infection can cause fetal death

What is the treatment of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women

Pyrimethamine

What are the infectious agents of Malaria

Plasmodium ovale: rarest form
Plasmodium malariae: Quartan
Plasmodium vivax: Benign tertian
Plasmodium falciparum: most feared and deadly form

What are some identifying characteristics of P.falciparum

Small, ring-shaped parasite located peripherally inside RBCs

What is the life cycle of malaria called in humans

Schizogony

What is the life cycle of malaria called in the mosquito

Sporogony

What is the incubation period for P.ovale

12-18 days

What is the incubation period for P. malariae

18-40days

What is the incubation period for P. vivax

12-18days

What is the incubation period of P. falciparum

9-14days

Once a mosquito is infected with malaria it is...

infected for life

Poorly untreated humans can remain infective to mosquitos

P.malariae- 3 or more years
P.vivax- 1-2 years
P.falciparum- not more than 1 year

Most black Africans have a natural resistance to...

P.vivax

How do you diagnose malaria

Peripheral blood test or thick and thin blood smear

What are IV medications for malaria

Quinine and Quinidine

What are some anti malarial drugs

Doxcycline, Tetracycline, Fansidar, and Mefloquine

What is the number one method of control for malaria

eliminate breeding sites for anopheline mosquitos

What is the commanding officers responsibility when it comes to the malaria control program

Ensure medical event report is submitted on all suspected and confirmed cases of malaria

What is the preventive medicine techs responsibility when it comes to malaria control program

Assist all medical department personnel in all aspects of malaria control, obtain vector information, conduct vector control measures

What are some methods of chemoprophylaxis for malaria

Chloroquine phosphate-1 tab weekly 1 week prior to entering area
Doxcycline-used in chloroquine resistant malaria areas 1 tab daily

Use terminal prophylaxis for...

28-30 days(4 weeks) after leaving area

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