Intro to pharm, part 1

160 terms by ericadallas

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pharm

pharmacology

what is the understanding of chemicals interaction w bio systems for the purpose of treating diseases

pharmacotherapeutics

what is the use of drugs in the tx of disease

drug

what is a natural product, chemical subst, or pharmaceutical prep to be given to humans or animals to treat a disease

safety and pharmacokinetics, healthy (is it safe)

what happens in phase I of drug development

efficacy, safety, dosing, small groups (you think it is safe)

what happens in phase II of drug development

verify efficacy and safety (detect adverse effects), (be presented to ppl and approved by FDA) large groups

what happens in phase III of drug development

post-marketing surveillance; obtain additional data following approval

what happens in phase IV of drug development

DEA

who regulate that diff prescriptions have diff regulations

schedule 1

what type of drugs are not legally prescribed other than in a lab setting (ex-LSD or marijunana) bc no medical use

schedule 2

what type of drugs are powerful and high abuse potential but w medical use (ex-oxycodone)

schedule 3

what type of drugs have a lower abuse potential (ex-codine or anabolic steroids)

schedule 4

what type of drugs have a low abuse potential (ex-anxiety or sedatives)

schedule 5

what type of drugs have no prescription needed federally, but may have some regulations state to state

united states

who has the strictest rules about prescriptions

bioavailability

what is it called when a generic must prove that they are almost the same with time and concentration for IV and for oral as the brand name

II-V

what schedule prescriptions can PA's write prescriptions for in NJ

pt name, date written, name of drug, strength of drug, directions, quantity of drug, prescriber name, signature,

what must be included when writing a prescription

prescriber's address, patient's address, DEA number

what must be included when writing a scheduled prescription

the stricter one

when determining the legal aspects of drug prescribing should the federal law or state law take precedent

FDA

who determines whether something is a prescription, OTC, or a food additive

DEA #

what do you need to prescribe on a federal level

CDS #

what do you need to prescribe controlled substances on a state level

safe place

where should prescription pads be stored

no

should you sign blank prescriptions in advance

legal requirements

written prescriptions need specific info to meed what

paper

oral rx should be transcribed to what immediately

1 yr

expiration of rx is usually how long after it is written

physician name

what should be written on all PA rx in addition to other stuff mentioned already

ink or indelible pencil

what should rx be written with

1000

1 kg = how many g

1000

1 g = how many mg

1000

1 mg = how many mcg

1000

1 mcg = how many ng

64.8

1 grain = how many mg

1000

1 L = how many ml

100

1 dL = how many ml

30

1 fluid ounce = how many ml

5

1 teaspoon = how many ml

15

1 tbsp = how many ml

240

1 glassful or 8 fluid ounces = how many ml

caps

what is the abbreviation for capsule

sol

what is the abbreviation for solution

supp

what is the abbreviation for suppositiory

susp

what is the abbreviation for suspension

syr

what is the abbreviation for syrup

tab

what is the abbreviation for tablet

p.o.

what is the abbreviation for by mouth

I.V.

what is the abbreviation for by intravenous

no abbreviation write out (I.M.)

what is the abbreviation for intramuscular

I.D.

what is the abbreviation for intradermal injection

pr

what is the abbreviation for per rectum

write out

what is the abbreviation for both eyes, right eye, left eye

write out

what is the abbreviation for both ears, right ear, left ear

d.

what is the abbreviation for day

h.

what is the abbreviation for hour

q.

what is the abbreviation for every

q4h.

what is the abbreviation for every 4 hours

daily

what is the abbreviation for every day

every other day

what is the abbreviation for every other day

b.i.d

what is the abbreviation for twice a day

t.i.d

what is the abbreviation for three times a day

q.i.d

what is the abbreviation for four times a day

bedtime

what is the abbreviation for bedtime

stat

what is the abbreviation for immediately

c.

what is the abbreviation for food, meal

a.c.

what is the abbreviation for before meals

p.c.

what is the abbreviation for after meals

with (-c)

what is the abbreviation for with

without (-s)

what is the abbreviation for without

rep.

what is the abbreviation for repeat

e.m.p.

what is the abbreviation for in the manner prescribed

ut dict.

what is the abbreviation for as directed

p.r.n.

what is the abbreviation for as needed

disp

what is the abbreviation for dispense

re

review percent strength in packet

receptor theory

a drug works by combining w a receptor which is then modified to produce the effect desired

equilibrium

a drug interaction occurs in what kind of environment where binding and unbinding is influenced by multiple things

covalent bonds

what bonds are very strong, irreversible at body temp, and uncommon in pharm

non-covalent

what bonds are weakers, work together or against each other, reversibly bind, often in pharm
ex: ionic, hydrogen, van der waals, hydrophobic

receptors

what are molecular subst or macromolecules in tissues that combine chemically w drug

yes

is each receptor different

no

do receptors interact w many things

fit

compounds have a maximum response at receptor sites that is related to their what

asymmetrical carbon atom

most compounds contain what that means that a molecule can be built either left or right handed

mirror images

left and right stereoisomers are not superimposable but are what

one (or one more strongly called stereospecificity)

biological receptors may only except how many isomers

racemic mixture

most drugs have equal proportions of dextro and levo isomers called WHAT even though there may be diff receptor specificities

dose-response relationship

what describes the relationship btwn conc of drug at receptor site and magnitude of response

maximum response capacity

drug response increases until it reaches what as the administered dose is increased

all functional receptors are occupied

the maximum response of a drug is when

number of receptors

the response of a drug is directly related to what which the drug interacts with

the law of mass action

what is when the fraction of all receptors are combined with the drug and this is a part of the conc of drug that is near the receptor and also of the dissociation constant of the drug-receptor complex

affinity

what is the tendency of a drug to combine w receptor

intrinsic activity

what is the ability of a drug to start a cellular effect

potency

what is the measure of drug activity on a milligram of drug per kilogram of body weight (depends on activity, affinity, kinetics)

efficacy

what is the measure of a drug's ability to produce a desired effect

agonist

what has affinity and intrinsic activity

antagonist

what has affinity and no intrinsic activity

effective dose

what is the dose where 50% of subjects have the same effect that you want

lethal dose

what is the dose where 50% of the subjects die

therapeutic index

what is the LD 50% / ED 50%

additive effects

what is when two drugs given at the same time produce the exact effect predicted from the sum of their effects alone

potentiation/synergism

what is when the effects of two drugs are greater than would have been predicted from their effects alone

antagonism

what is when two drugs used together produce less than the predicted effect alone

chemical antagonism

what is when drugs don't have an effect bc what you used to treat one thing blocks the other

functional antagonism

what is when you use two drugs that have opposing effects on the body

population heterogenecity

what is when there is not as many enzymes in the liver to digest

100

what percentage of an intravenous drug is in the blood at 0 time

pharmacokinetics

what is the dose, frequency, route of administration to drug level in time relationship of the body

pharmacodynamics

what is the conc of drug at the site of action to the magnitude of the effects produced

administration

the route of absorption depends on the route of what

physiochemical factors (quality of drug) and patient factors (alteration of GI tract and other systems)

what two factors effect drug absorption

first pass effect

what refers to hepatic elimination or deactivation of orally administered drugs before systemic absorption

first pass hepatic elimination

the following are drugs w low oral availability due to what:
-aspirin, desipramine, hydralazine, isoproterenol, lidocain, methylphenidate, morphine, nitroglycerin, pentazocine, propoxyphene, propanolol

distribution

what is the amt of drug in the body relative to its conc in blood

apparent volume of distribution (Vd)

what is a volume into which the drug would distribute if it existed in the same conc throughout the body as it does in the serum or plasma where it is being measured

apparent volume of distribution (Vd)

what do the following factors affect:
-size of person, plasma protein binding, tissue dist (intra and extra vascular compartments, fat solubility)

unbound

what type of drug is capable of leaving and entering the tissues

liver

most drugs are altered where before being eliminated and the goal of this is to increase water solubility

non-synthetic

the liver does WHAT reactions like oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis to make drugs more soluble

synthetic

the liver does WHAT reactions like conjugation via glucuronidation, sulfation, acetylation, methylation to make drugs more soluble

p450

what enzyme of the liver may be induced to dec the conc of drug in the blood or decreased to inc the conc of drug in the blood

clearance

what is a proportionality constant that relates the conc to the rate of drug elimination

volume per unit time

the units of kidney clearance are what

clearance x concentration

clearance (of kidney is what formula)

glomerular filtration rate

how is renal excretion measured

urine pH

active secretion and reabsorption often occur in the kidney and is influenced by what

plasma drug conc and plasma protein binding

what can effect renal excretion

half-life

what is the time to eliminate half of the drug in the body or reduce Cp by one half

first order kinetics

what means that you have a fixed % of drug over time

monitor drug levels, suspected toxicity, suspected undertreatment, cost factors

what are the four reasons why you should use pharmacokinetics

yes

should the following types of drugs be used for pharmacokinetics:
-good correlation btwn plasma conc and pharmacological response
-narrow therapeutic range
-widely variable plasma levels btwn subjects from a given dose
-drug assay is readily available

neuromuscular junction

the somatic nervous system originates in the CNS and has a nerve cell body found there and then has its synapse where

Ach

what is the neurotransmitter for the somatic nervous system

two

how many synapses are needed to affect an organ when using the autonomic nervous system

Ach (1) and NE (2)

what are the two sympathetic neurotransmitters that effect smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland cells

Ach (1) and Ach (2)

what are the two sympathetic neurotransmitters that effect sweat glands

E and NE

what are the two sympathetic neurotransmitters that effect the adrenal medulla

Ach (1) and Ach (2)

what are the two parasympathetic neurotransmitters that effect smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland cells

adrenal medulla

what is the exception to the rule that the sympathetic nervous system has short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers

pre-synaptic

what part of the nerve ending is a neurotransmitter factory (uptake of precursors, synthesis, and packaging) for Ach and NE

nerve action potential

what causes the release of neurotransmitters at synapses

at a receptor

the conc of drug or neurotransmitter where will quantitatively grade the response

Ach and NE

what neurotransmitters can diffuse out of the cleft to terminate the action

Ach

what neurotransmitter can be enzymatically converted to terminate the action

NE

what neurotransmitter can be uptaken to terminate the action

modification of chemical transmission by drugs

what is the foundation of modern pharmacology

drugs

what can do the following:
-block pre-synaptic release
-cause inc pre-synaptic release
-mimic the endogenous transmitter (agonist)
-block the endogenous transmitter (antagonist)
-interfere with the termination step
-modulate related systems (second messenger)

cholinergic

acetylcholine receptors are also called what

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