AP Human Geography Unit 1

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AP Human Geography: A Study Guide 2nd Edition by Ethel Woods

Absolute Location

exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates: meridians and parallels.

Cartography

the art and science of map-making.

Circular Pattern

objects that circle another object; also known as centralized pattern.

Cultural Landscapes

products of interactions between humans and their environments.

Daylight Savings Time

pushes the clock forward one hour in the spring in order to allow more sunlight in the afternoon during the warm spring and summer months.

Distortion

the alteration(change) of the original shape.

Environmental Geography

a branch of geography that centers on the interaction of human and physical geography on the environment.

Equator

imaginary circle (line) that lies exactly halfway between North/South at 0 degrees latitude.

Formal Regions(or uniform regions)

an area that has striking similarities in terms of one or a few physical or cultural features.

Functional Regions( or nodal regions)

an area organized around cores, or nodes.

GIS( geographic information system)

a computer system that captures, stores, analyzes and displays data.

Globalization

the expansion of economic, political, and cultural activities to the point they reach and have impact on many areas of the world.

Greenwich Mean Time

the standard time at the Prime Meridian.

GPS(global positioning system)

system that uses a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers to determine precise absolute locations on earth.

Grid Pattern( or rectilinear pattern)

reflects a rectangular system or land survey adopted in much of the country under the Ordinance of 1785.

Human Geography

a branch of geography that focuses on people, dealing with how human activity affects or is influenced by the earth's surface.

Landscapes

the overall appearance of an area that is shaped by both human and natural influences.

Latitude

distance north and south of the equator.

Linear Pattern

a pattern that is along straight lines, like rivers, streets, on railroad tracks.

Local Time

the time in a particular region/area expressed with reference to the meridian passing through it.

Location

position of something on earth's surface.

Longitude

numbering system that calculates distance east/west of the prime meridian.

Meridian

an arc drawn between the North/South poles that measures longitude.

Multi-national corporations

have centers of operation in many parts of globe, where economic globalization is apparent through the proliferation of.

Parallels

imaginary lines around the Earth parallel to the equator.

Pattern

arrangement of objects on earth's surface in relationship to one another.

Perceptual(vernacular) regions

regions that aren't formal and functional; they are places that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity.

Periphery

the outside boundary or surface of something; the region's margins.

Place

a specific point on earth with human and physical characteristics that distinguish it from other points.

Physical geography

a branch of geography that deals with natural features and processes.

Physical Site Characteristic

a location that includes climate, topography, soil, water sources, vegetation, and elevation.

Prime Meridian

located at the observatory in Greenwich, England at 0 degrees longitude; an imaginary line that separates the globe into two halves, East and West.

Random Pattern

a pattern that has no regular distortion that can be seen.

Regionalization

an organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed different from other ares.

Scale

relationship between the size of an object or distance between objects on a map and the ACTUAL object or distance on earth's surface.

Site("location")

the physical and human transformed characteristics of a place.

Situation

the relationship of a settlement site to its surroundings and thus a factor in whether the settlement will grow or not.

Solar Time

the time based on the position of the sun in the sky, as the day progresses.

Space

Physical gap or distance between two objects.

Space Time Compression

a term used by geographers to describe the changes that rapid connections among places and regions have brought.

Spatial Organization

location of places, people, and events, and the connections among places and landscapes.

Time Zone

a region that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time.

Toponym

places on earth that has names.

U.S. Census Bureau

one the biggest employers of geographers in the U.S.; government program that surveys the population every ten years in order to aid official plans and fund certain programs.

"Why of Where"

explanations for why a spatial pattern occurs.

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