Bacterial Cell Structure

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Objectives: 1) List the three parts of bacterial taxonomy. 2) Compare and contrast gram-positive, gram-negative and Acid Fast cell envelopes with regards to structure and chemical composition 3) Describe the Gram stain procedure 4) List the 3 components of bacterial cell envelopes that are highly toxic to mammalian cells. Describe their chemical composition 5) Describe the general role capsules, flagella, pili and cell surface proteins play in bacterial virulence 6) Describe the morphologi…

List the three parts of bacterial taxonomy?

1) Archae
2) Eukyra
3) Bacteria

What is the concept of taxonomic rank and what is the order from highest to lowest? (7)

highest-
1) Domain
2) Phylum
3) Class
4) Order
5) Family
6) Genus
7) Species
lowest

What is a way to remember the bacterial taxonomic rank system?

Damn
PHISH
Caught
Ordinary
Flu
Going
South

What are some typical bacterial cell membrane components?

1) flagellum
2) pili
3) capsule
4) cell envelope

What role do flagella, pili and capsules play in bacterial virulence? (3)

1) capsules - adherence/attachment
2) flagella - getting away from immune system
3) pili - attachment to surfaces

What are the three parts of bacterial taxonomy?

1)classification
2) identification
3) nomenclature

What is classification?

orderly arrangement of bacteria into groups

What is identification?

practical use of classification criteria to distinguish certain types of bacteria from others

What is nomenclature?

the means by which characteristics of a species are defined and communicated among microbiologists

What are the different ways you can classify bacterial cells according to the way they look? (2)

1) way the cell is shaped (morphology)
2) cell arrangement

What is the primary function of flagella on bacteria?

motility to nutrients or away from toxic chemicals

What does clockwise movement of flagella cause?

tumbling

What does counterclockwise movement of flagella cause?

straight line movement

What is the main difference between fimbrae and sex pili? (structure and function)

fimbrae- numerous short and thin and are for cell attachment
sex pili- are longer, thicker and less numerous and are for mating

What are the four functions of bacterial capsules?

1) cell attachment
2) source of growth substrates
3) resistance to phagocytosis and dessication
4) influence tissue trophism

What are the two mainways that bacteria differ in terms of their cell envelope?

1) amount of peptidoglycan
2) lipids

Order the three types of bacteria according to their peptidoglycan layer thickness?

gram pos >>> gram neg = acid fast

Match the type of bacteria with their lipoprotein? gram positive

gram pos - lipotehichoic acid and teichoic acid

Match the type of bacteria with their lipoprotein? gram neg

lipopolysaccaride

Match the type of bacteria with the lipoprotein? acid-fast

mycolic acid, arabinogalactan, sulfolipids

What is on the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria? (3)

1) LPS
2) porins
3) lipoprotein

What is on the inner membrane of gram negative bacteria? (3)

it IS the cytoplasmic membrane
1) nutrient xporters
2) electron transport chain
3) biosynthetic enzymes for LIPS and peptidoglycan

So which is the type of bacteria cell with multiple layers?

gram negative is the one that has the multiple layers

What are the two alternating sugars that form the backbone of peptidoglycan?

N acetyleglucosamine (NAG)
N acetylmuramic acid (NAMA)

What are the steps of the gram stain? (5)

1) Add crystal violet
2) Add iodine
3) Decolorize with alcohol and acetone
4) Add safranin

When does the gram negative organism lose the christal violet?

after you add the alcohol-aceton and decolorize

What does the gram neg cell look after you add safranin?

red

What does the gram positive cell look like after you add safranin?

violent/purple

What are the general steps of peptidoglycan biosyntehsis? (3)

1) insid ethe cell the precursor is synthesized
2) transport across the plasma membrane
3) final assembly and cross linkage

What are the two antibiotics that work on step one of the peptidoglycan synthesis cascade?

1) fosfomycin
2) cycloserine

Where does fosfomycin work in the peptidoglycan synthesis cascade?

fosfomycin is a PEP analog inhibiting UDB muramic acid biosyntehsis

Where does cycloserine work in the peptidoglycan synthesis cascade?

analog of D alanine and competitively inhibits the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine and the synthesis of D-ala and D-ala

What must happen to the fosfomycin and cycloserine antibiotics for them to be effective?

they must be taken into the cell

What are the three antibiotics that work in the step 2 of the peptidoglycan synthesis cascade? (3)

1) Vancomycin
2) Ristocetin
3) Bacitracin

Where does vancomycin and ristocetin work?

1) binds D-ala-D-ala so it cant be transferred to receptor

How does bacitracin work?

inhibits dephosphorylation of lipid carrier by binding the Pi

What two antibiotics work at the third stage of peptidoglycan synthesis?

1) penicillin
2) cephalosporine

Where is the action of penicillin and cephalosporine?

they inhibit transpeptidase which basically does the crosslinking in the final stage of peptidoglycan synthesis

What is the action of quinolones?

they inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase

What is the action of rifampin?

they inhibit the B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

What is the action of tetracyclines and aminoglycosides?

inhibit protein synthesis at 30s ribosome

What is the action of cholorophenicol, erythromycin and clindmycin?

bind to 50s ribosome

What is the mechanism of action of sulfa drugs? (2)

inhibit folic acid synthesis by acting as compeitive inhibitors of PABA

What is the mechanism of timethropim, aminoterin and methotrexate?

inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase

What are the three parts of the lipopolysaccharides?

1)lipid A
2) core polysaccharide
3) O side chain (O antigen)

Which part of the LPS is most pathogenic

lipid A

Does gram negative or gram positive bacteria have periplasmic space

gram negative

What is the difference in the ring structures between gram positive and gram negative bacteria?

gram positive- 2 rings in basal body
gram negative - 4 rings in basal body

Which has the greater resistance to physical disruption, gram neg or gram post? why?

gram positive because of that huge ass peptidoglycan layer

Where can you find mycolic acids? (2)

Genera: 1) mycobacterium 2)nocardia

What are mycolic acid?

alpha substituted beta hydroxy fatty acids

What is cord factor?

a trehalose that mycobacterium tubercolosus cell envelopes contain that is linked to mycolic acid

What are the two genera of pathogenic bacteria that sporulate (2)?

1)Bacillus
2) clostridium

What is the chemical mediator that htelps bacterial spores resist heat, toxic chemicals etc?

calcium dipclonic acid

Penicillin ____
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

Penicillin - C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis

Chloramphenical _____
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

Chloramphenical - I - Binds to 50S Ribosomal subunit

Steptomycin ____

A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

Streptomycin H - Binds to 30s ribosomal subunit

Rafampicin _______
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

Rafampicin - D - Inhibits transcription

Sulfanamide ______
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

Sulfonamides - E- Compeittive inhibitor of Folic Acid Biosynthesis

Cycloserine ___________
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

Cycloserine A Stage 1 of Cell wall biosyntehsis

Bacitracin ________
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

B - Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis. Blocks it when its going on to the carrier.

Quinolones ________
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

Quinolones - G - Inhibits DNA gyrase activity

Clindamycin _____
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

I - Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit

Tetracycline ________
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

H - Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit

Trimethoprim ________
A. Stage 1 of cell wall biosynthesis
B. Stage 2 of cell wall biosynthesis
C. Stage 3 of Cell wall biosynthesis
D. Inhibits transcription
E. competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosyntehsis
F. Membrane
G. Inhibits DNA gyrase activity
H. Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
I. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
J. INhibits binding of mRNA to 30s Ribosomal subunit
K. Binds to B subunit of bacterial RNA pol

E - Competitive inhibitor of folic acid biosynthesis

What are the 8 steps of sporulation?

1) cell division
2) axial filament formation
3) septum formation
4) engulfment of forespore
5) cortex formation
6) coat synthesis
7) completion of coat synthesis, increase in refractility and heat resistance
8) lysis of sporangium, spore liberation

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