5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Rate of Heat Loss
- William Harvey (1578-1657)
- High Extracellular Ion Concentrations
- Factors that Determine Heat Production
- Core Temperature
- a Na⁺, Ca²⁺, Cl⁻, HCO₃
- b Depends on the speed of heat transfer from body core to skin to ambient environment.
- c * Basal Metabolic Rate
* Shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis
* Metabolism due to hormonal activity
* Extra metabolism: stimulation of sympathetic nerves or cellular chemical activity
- d Modern physiology dates from his research on the cardiovascular system; "On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals"; blood recycled, pumped out of the heart via arteries which were somehow connected to veins and returned to the heart (capillaries weren't visible).
- e Most important physiological temperature. The temperature of deep tissues. Varies between 99 °F and 99.7 °F (101 °F in active children).
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- Inborn intelligence
- Metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes.
- 1 mole of glucose = 30 ATP (219 kcal) and 467 kcal heat
- Sensory Input; Integrative; Motor Output/Response
- Part of the nervous system that senses and controls information with afferent and efferent neurons.
5 True/False Questions
Receptor → 60% of heat loss. Molecular motion produces infra red which the body releases in all directions.
Stimulus → Pyrogens increase hypothalamic thermostat set point suddenly initiating a cascade of events: dermal vasoconstriction, shivering, piloerection, hot sensation due to chemical thermogenesis.
Sensory (Subdivision) → The maintenance of temperature involving several negative feedback loops controlled by a cluster of neurons called hypothalamic thermostat in the hypothalamus.
Integrative (Subdivision) → * These proteins span the entire lipid bilayer
* May act as ion channels and transporters (e.g. Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, and Cl⁻) across the membrane
* Act as receptors for neurotransmitter substances, receptors for nerve growth, and adhesion factors
Types of ICF → Condition due to cold weather or icy water. Core temperature < 91 °F. Leads to sleep, coma, and death.