at Council of Trent - 1545-1563 (on and off) Poor attendance. Raised old conciliar movement issue. If councils from all over cath world assembled - question was, would they have more authority than pope? Popes resisted idea of conciliar movt. /limiting papal power. Indeed, after Trent no councils met again until Vatican Council of 1870. Cardinal legates appntd by pope worked vs. episc. movt.
justification by works and faith
Council of Trent did make this much of a compromise. Confirmed importance of faith (as before) but still kept "works." Restated many of its established doctrines - 7 Sacraments, Priesthood, confession, transubstantiation. Rejected Bible supremacy. Scripture and tradition on equal footing. (C of T did tighten up on some of worst abuses).
1534-49 Roman aristocrat, humanist and astrologer. First of reforming popes (called C of T). Appointed several reform-minded cardinals. Believed in Papal primacy but took office v. seriously - moral & religious force. Authorised Ursuline order of nuns - girls education, & Jesuits.
St. Vincent de Paul
Cath. missionary among poor in Paris, 1500s. Signifocant as example of RC Missionary spirit . More so than amng Protestants. Part of big RC drive to reconvert protestants.
St. Ignatius Loyola
Relig. experience in 1521. Became soldier of church. Estab. Society of Jesus / Jesuits. Authorised by Paul III in 1540 - active in world/politics/colonies etc. rather than cloistered. Spiritual Exercies outline rigorous spiritual training of members. Role in education. Pro Ren and Humanist education. Schools for boys. Strict but included deportment, dancing etc. Organized on almost military lines. Rigid rules of command. As international missionary force was effective in gaining new converts. And reconverts.
High papalism of Jesuits - devotion to pope and church. At C of T upheld the interests of pope over national bishops. This aspect of Jesuits smtms made them as obnoxious to caths. as to prots.
Index of Prohibited Books
Authorized by Holy Office of Roman Inquisition. List of books probibited to Catholics(Venetian book traders found ways around this - only enforced if heresy a direct threat to the Republic of Venice. So Italians not completely cut off from main currents of European learning. )
translation of Bible into Latin made by St. Jerome in 4th cent. was declared by C of T to be only version on wh. tchg. could be based.
church abuse whereby one man held several different church offices. Many of which he could not possibly attend to. C of T tried to suppress this abuse along with absenteeism, indulgences, worldly behavior, etc. Significant attempt to reform the abuses that had given such fuel to the Protestant movement.
Society of Jesus
Jesuits estabd. by Loyola
established under Ferdinand & Isabella in 1480 to root out Moslems and Jews. Was a religious tribunal. Used very brutal methods. Aim to achieve religious conformity. Ferd. used it for political purposes also. Helped ensure reconquista & expulsion of Jews. Those who converted and stayed were still often subjected to it. Later used in countries ruled by Spain to fight Protestantism. Ex. Netherlands where Calvinism active.
Papal Inquisition. Estab. in Rome 1542 under permanent committee of cardinals called Holy Office. Goal to fight Protestantism/heresy. Both Sp. & Roman Inqu. employed: torture, secret witnesses, hearsay and rumour as evidence - all to get conviction. Most severe penalty was burning at stake. Sp. Inqu. more severe than Roman. There was national resistance of Cath. countries outside Italy to the R. I. & no form of Inqu. ever allowed in Fr(Church Gallicanized). But both Inquisitions did help stop spread of Prot. in Sp. & Italy.