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central nervous system

the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

the nuerons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, including the muscle and glands

nuerons

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

cell body

the part of a nueron that produces the energy needed for the activity of the cell

dendrites

the branchlike extension of a neuron that recieve impulses and conduct them toward the cell body

axon

a long tubelike structure attached to a nueron that transmits impulses away from the nueron cell body

myelin

a white, fatty substance that insulates axons and enables rapid tranmission of nueral impulses

axon terminals

smal fibers branching out from an axon

synapse

the junction between the axon terminals of the sending nueron and the dentrites of the recieving neuron

neurotransmitters

a chemical messenger that carries impulses across the synaptic gaps between nuerons

spinal cord

a column of nerves within the spinethat transmit messages to and from the brain

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system with sensory receptors, muscles, and the skin

autonomatic nervous system

the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates body functions, such as respiration and digestion

medulla

a structure at the base of the brain stem that controls vital functions such as hearbeat and breathing

pons

a brain sructure located at the top of the brain stem tat is involved in respiration, movement, and sleep

cerebellum

the area of the brain that is responsiblefor voluntary movement and balance

reticular activating system

the part of the brain that is involved in attention, sleep, and arousal

thalamus

the structure of the brain that relays messages from the senses organs to the cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

the nueral structure located below the thalamus that controls temperature, hunger, thirst, and various aspects of emotion

limbic system

a group of nueral structures at the base of the cerebral hemispehers that is associated with emotion and motivation

cerebrum

the large amout of mass of the forebrain, consiting of two hemispheres

cerebral cortex

the bumpy, convoluted surface of the brain; the body's control and information processing center

corpus callosum

the nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemisperes of the cerebral cortex

association areas

area of the cerebral cortex that are involved in such mental operations as thinking, memory, learning and problem solving

endocrine system

the glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

hormones

chemicals produced by the endocrine glands that regulate specific body functions

heredity

the genetic transmission of traits from one generation to the next

genes

the basic building blocks of heredity

chromosomes

a micrscopic threadlike structure in the nucleus of every living cell; it contains genes , the bacis units of heredity

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