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submicroscopic

the realm of atoms and molecules, where objects are smaller than can be detected by optical microscopes

chemistry

the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes

matter

that which has mass and occupies space

basic research

research dedicated to the discovery of the fundamental workings of nature

applied research

research dedicated to the development of useful products and processes

science

an organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world

scientific hypothesis

is a testable assumption, or guess, often used to explain an observed phonomenon

control test

a test performed by scientists to increase the conclusiveness of an experimental test

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.

mass

the amount of matter in an object.

weight

a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object

volume

the amount of space an object takes up

energy

the capacity to do work

potential energy

stored energy

kinetic energy

energy due to motion

temperature

a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object

thermometer

measuring instrument for measuring temperature

absolute zero

The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.

heat

the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures

solid

matter that has definite volume and definite shape

liquid

a form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container

gas

a form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape

melting

change from a solid to a liquid

freezing

the change of state from a liquid to a solid

evaporation

the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas

boiling

evaporation in which bubbles form beneath the liquid surface

condensation

The change of state from a gas to a liquid

density

the ratio of an object"s mass to its volume

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